Common law and civic law

Common law and civic law

Common law and civic law

Common law and civic law are the two major forms of legal systems practiced in the world with common law focus on court decisions while civic law focuses on judicial statutes or rather government legislation. According to 2014 statistics the former is followed in 80 countries and the latter predominates in 150 nations. There has been extensive debate and research as to the best system for economic progress as well as the administration of justice

In common law i.e the adversary  system there is a judge, the two sides against each other and a team of independently selected individuals referred to as the jury without formal legal training who listen and analyze the facts presented but the judge is the ultimate decision maker. Civil law ie the inquisitorial system on the other hand is based on the concept of following a set of established rule set up by the governing body, established legal structures and judgment is determined upon this written set of rules. In an adversarial system there is minimal bias, since it does not follow an established framework of regulations and decisions are binding in that provisions can be introduced whenever need arises. However in civic law scenario there is a written constitution which does not allow either party to introduce new provisions and this be done only through legislation; the mandate of authorized institutions. Adversarial system the rights of the defendant are of utmost importance:i.e the right to an attorney, the right to remain silent however in an inquisitor system a defendant has few rights and remaining silent shows lack of cooperation with the process and this can be interpreted as a sign of guilt. Adversarial system both the defense attorney and the prosecutor present facts as they best understand them while in inquisitory system the defendant has the right to make an appeal if he/she thinks she was not justly convicted and the prosecutor and the police are responsible in running the investigationThe defense attorney  attacks the credibility and worthiness of evidence of the prosecution inorder to attack the credibility.In the latter the judge is much passive and remains neutral till judgement while in the former the judge actively controls the search for evidence and questions the witness.

Therefore as a criminal defendant presumably guilty the adversarial system is much favorable as the main goal is to drive the jury of your not based by facts andevidence but through mischief andplaying with emotions on other side,as  criminal defendant presumably innocent inquisitory system is much favorable has facts and evidence are crucial and with a chance of appeal.The adversarysystem promotestheultimate objective of the guiltybe convictedandthe innocent set free.

Gunn, J., & Mevis, P. (2018). Adversarial Versus Inquisitorial Systems of Trial and Investigation in Criminal. Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology in Europe: A Cross-Border Study Guide, 1.

Langer, M. (2015). Strength, Weakness or Both? On the Endurance of the Adversarial-Inquisitorial Systems in Comparative Criminal Procedure.

Sevier, J. (2014). The truth-justice tradeoff: Perceptions of decisional accuracy and procedural justice in adversarial and inquisitorial legal systems. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law20(2), 212.

End Racial Inequality

End Racial Inequality

End Racial Inequality

Changes in Society and Politics to End Racial Inequality

            Racial inequality has occupied most headlines in social criticism than any other problem in society from the modern era. Nonetheless, inequality as a social phenomenon has been depicted in all cultures from ancient times. Minority tribes and communities with weaker social and political organization were often annexed and captured by advanced societies as slaves. Despite massive changes during the era of the industrial revolution and the scientific revolutions that have followed, inequality remains a permanent emblem of human society in the bigger picture. To end racial inequality and the other variants perpetuated by race or tribal distinction, massive economic and social innovation and programs have to be initiated in society. Inequality naturally occurs because people are endowed with different abilities and dispositions, and the communities in which they live thrive on very distinct social and political processes. Therefore, to alleviate all forms of inequality, massive geographic planning, and control, as well as social engineering of a supreme kind, must be executed by a central universal government to avert disproportionate progress. 

            Inequality is best measured by the Gini coefficient or index, which is a statistical measure of dispersion of income and wealth distribution. On this platform, zero represents a situation of perfect equality of all distributions of the characteristic and 1 or (100%) express a state of maximum imperfect comparison (inequality) (Diaz-Bazan, 2015). Although wealth is a critical aspect of inequality because of the systems of an industrial economy, other factors like consumption choices and saving are generative processes of wealth growth or decline, which hamper the state of inequality in a society. If low-income people can cultivate more saving and austerity in their financial conduct, gradually there can yield wealth and make an upward ascent in the social structure of their societies. Progressive ideas have been tried by many countries that lifted their people out of poverty to higher levels of development generally appreciated as advanced economies. In this view, substantive inequality is closely tied to the level of poverty and human suffering in society. Developed nations may be relatively equal or unequal, but the political challenges of inequality reside in abject poverty, discrimination, social and ethnic prejudice, lack of opportunity and unequal treatment of communities.

            At the international stage, massive resources have been allocated through charity organizations and global platforms led by the United Nations Organization (UN) to eradicate poverty and bring about development. Under the auspices of the United Nations and other development institutions like the World Banks and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), large funds directed at attaining Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at the global level have yielded astounding results of lowering inequality (Le Blanc, 2015). Globalization means a process of attaining increased international collaboration and interaction, which has made it possible for developing nations to enjoy market opportunities at the global scale under the framework of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Regional trading blocs and special arrangements for industrial and market access treaties have led to the liberalization of trade and alleviation of embargoes, trade restrictions, and tariffs that perpetuated inequality (Kennedy, Welch & Monshipouri, 2017). 

            Political goodwill and better trade collaborations among nations and within regional blocs are useful initiatives in alleviating inequality between states and even between households. The government plays an instrumental role in the fight against inequality by ensuring that there exist appropriate policies to facilitate appropriate distribution of national resources. Nonetheless, in democracies, the political leadership is elected on the basis of the ‘majority rules’ principle, which in most cases is implemented on the racial or tribal level, hence indicating that highly populated tribes or races determines the government of the day. On the other hand racially elected politicians more than often distribute resources, as well as formulate and implement policies along the racial lines to reward political loyalty. In this regard, a race-based inequality with defined rich and poor races emerges, hence creating a social separation on the similar line as well. Furthermore, distinct grouping created by the inequality can become prejudicial against each other. For instance, the rich can view the poor races as lazy, while the poor –minority perceive the rich-majority ass discriminative. Therefore, because political power plays a central role in such systems, races enter into competition with each to either acquire or retain an upper-hand on the race, hence creating a cycle of escalating racial inequality.

            The political leadership must possess the goodwill to break the racial competition, by ensuring equal distribution of resources, hence eliminate the existing racial separation, as well as the race-based prejudices, which immensely contribute racial inequalities. Investment stimulation and entrepreneurship must be encouraged to generate wealth, which helps reduce poverty and deprivation that perpetuate unequal income distribution, by creating socially unequal races, with strong negative prejudices against each other. By improving the productive capacity of the poor masses through improving their access to education and promoting healthcare provision, hence reducing the social gap between the rich and the poor, huge strides can be attained in the fight against inequality. For instance, education enables people to understand their conditions and improve their lot not only by accessing better-paying jobs, but it also enhances making and choosing of rational and critically sound decisions and choices, respectively, about welfare. At the governance level, devolved government units can make local people access government services better and make governance function better because they are closer to the people, hence improving resource distribution. Such initiatives must be promoted at a local and global level, while politically advocating for tolerance on matters regarding diversity and multiculturalism to alleviate prejudices and unfounded racial discrimination.

            By depending on research particularly in agricultural production and massive infrastructure development, millions of the world’s poor can become food secure, and that way have better health and progressive societies. International stewardship against ethnic violence and terrorism should also go hand in hand with development efforts to avert negative trends of radical nationalism, hence eliminating or reducing interracial and international aggressiveness. Moreover, governments should uphold effective programs directed at minorities and disadvantaged groups like the disabled persons, women, and children to ensure they have better chances to a productive future. Scientific innovation and investment in green energy and sustainable development efforts can gradually make people happier and improve the welfare of different categories of people within less developed nations, because their accrued wastage reduction and resource increment. Additional resources realized from increased production and reduced wastage can then be channeled to racial equality initiatives. For instance, better social welfare programs can improve better access to medical care and social amenities particularly for the old and the sick, hence reduce discrimination of such groups. Through the cumulative efforts of civil society players, non-governmental organizations, peace ambassadors and political leaders, better and safer societies can be built that are inclusive and equal (Chancel, Hough & Voituriez, 2017). In essence, better welfare for everyone promises a gradual alleviation of inequality as a social ill.  

            In conclusion, a multi-stakeholder approach, and inter-organizational and inter-governmental collaboration are necessary for the fight against inequality.  Inequality narrowly defined on income level or racial level may never be addressed because its effect on the global economy does not affect a single race or a single tribe or ethnic identity. While inequality is mostly a perception and a political sentiment, real development disparities mean grave consequences for the human race.  Inequality is the basis for wars and radical nationalism and fascism that threatened to tear the world apart in the early 20th century. The very wealthy 1% need to bear the responsibility to apportion their resources in the promotion of welfare and development in developing countries. Better governance and respect for human rights and dignity as well as gender mainstreaming are positive efforts of eradicating inequality. Moreover, open borders that encourage international immigration and collaboration will do more in fostering global humanity that is progressive, productive, and secure.     


Chancel, L., Hough, A., & Voituriez, T. (2017). Reducing inequalities within countries:     converting the global debate into action. Institut du développement durable et des relations internationals, IDDRI Studies, 1, 2017.

Diaz-Bazan, T. (2015). Measuring inequality from top to bottom. The World Bank.             Washington. D.C.

Kennedy, E. T., Welch, C. E., & Monshipouri, M. (2017). Multinational corporations and the        ethics of global responsibility: Problems and possibilities. In Human Rights and       Corporations (pp. 123-147). Routledge.

Le Blanc, D. (2015). Towards integration at last? The sustainable development goals as a network of targets. Sustainable Development, 23(3), 176-187.

List of Changes

  1. Grammar corrections
  2. Formatting (Spacing)
  3. Punctuation (Comma)
  4. Content(information enhancing the manner in which proposed solutions can solve inequality based problems)

Billing Sea Food Guys

Billing Sea Food Guys

Billing Sea Food Guys

Section A                              


Billing seafood guys provide wild Alaskan Seafood to Billings, Montana and surrounding areas from sustainable and wild fisheries. The sea foods provided include:

  1. Wild Alaskan Rockfish
  2. Wild Alaskan Sockeye Salmon
  3. Wild Alaskan Lingcod
  4. Pacific Dungeness crab
  5. Wild Alaskan Spot prawns
  6. Wild seafood Lombo

The business offers a variety of additional services such as door to door deliveries and many more. Currently Billing seafood guys want to introduce another service that is mobile payment that will allow the customers to pay at any location at the convenience of their phone without having to carry around a wallet.


  1. Convenience in payment: The mobile payment service will allow the customers to be able to make payments from any location without the need to carry a physical wallet. Research conducted in 2015 shows that a majority of 40% of customers will switch to mobile payments rather than carrying cash due to its convenience.
  2. Safety: Compared to credit transactions mobile payments are more secure. Use of mobile wallets such as Apple pay or even near field communication (NFC) as a payment method is much safer compared to use of credit cards. Near field communication payments are dynamically encrypted which makes it one of the most secure ways to pay.
  3. Increased competitive advantage: Today the business environment has become very competitive globally, hence for firms to remain in operation and make profit they have to be at a competitive edge. Mobile payments can grantee this as it gives the firm an opportunity to stay on top of new technology. Consumers spend more money through digital platforms compared to cash payments, and will tend to shop more often if they can pay for services or products via mobile payment. Firms that move quickly to adopt mobile payment will gain the interest and loyalty of the valuable customers who are primarily in nature early adopters thereby placing them at a competitive advantage.
  4. Enhanced book keeping: Many are times when businesses forget to record transactions, hence leading major problems for the firms. On the other hand, mobile payment offers a solution to this as it allows for easier book keeping. On top of that, mobile payment can reduce costs, such as bank changes and overheads, and can improve cash-flow evaluation positions. In addition, mobile payments help to reduce time spent on bookkeeping tasks because everything is already in the system, as well reducing the backlog of invoices and receipts.
  5. Better customer experience: A mobile payment method can enhance customer experience, because transaction processing is faster compared to long payment queues at the business premise approach. In addition, the method of transacting allows the customer to pay for products and services at the convenience of their location.


Billing Seafood Guys plans to charge a fixed rate of 3% for every delivery they make depending on the value of the seafood delivered. Normal delivery charges will however still be incurred by the customer.

How to sell the services to the customers

Billing Seafood Guys need to create awareness about their newly adopted mobile payment service in order to get it up and running. To do this, they will use various platforms, which include:

  1. Personal selling: Billing Seafood Guys need to train their staff member how to sell the idea about mobile payment to the customers especially during door to door deliveries where there is in face to face contact with the customers. Billing staff members should also ensure to train customers on how to use the payment system to reduce the chance of resistance to the service.
  2. Social media platforms: Posting information about the mobile payment service on their various social media accounts such as Facebook and Instagram would also be another way to ensure that customer are aware about the service. In addition, it is also important the benefits that would be accrued by using the service.
  3. E- marketing: electronic marketing refers to the use of electronic mail to solicit sales from customers. In this case, Billing Seafood Guys can use email to send information about the new payment service to customers. It is also necessary that they include a clearly stipulated guideline explaining how the system works.
  4. Telemarketing: Telemarketing is an approach, which emphasizes contacting of potential or existing customers through phone calls to solicit sales from them. Billing Seafood Guys should assign a team that will be in charge of calling customers to provide more details about the new mobile payment service.

Sources of revenue

Setting up a mobile payment system is generally fast and affordable. When setting up a mobile payment system using a digital wallet, the business requires a digital wallet provider. Today there are dozens of digital wallet companies from which business can choose from making the service even more affordable. Existing profits of the Billing seafood guys should come in handy as a source of capital to set up the mobile payment service. Since billing seafood have also established an online business they will need to add a module to their current shopping cart software to accept mobile payment.

Customer Interface

For billing sea food guys to successfully introduce their mobile payment system they need to be in constant communication with their customers. To do this, they can adopt the following methods:

  1. Face-to-face: Billing seafood guys should establish a customer care desk at their business premises where customers who have any queries or complaints can interact face to face with staff personnel for further clarification to their query or complaint.
  2. Phone: It is important for Billing seafood guys to get the opinion of customers about their take toward the mobile payment service this way they will be able to determine whether or not the service is a viable business idea. Among the various ways to do so, a phone call conversation can be more fruitful. The caller should try and establish what the customer likes about the service and what he dislikes and the thing he/she would like to be done to enhance the experience when using the mobile payment service.
  3. The internet: For those customers who face to face conversations would be impossible to conduct due to geographical reason and at the same time making phone calls would be rather difficult due to the high cost expenses, the internet would be the best forum to use. Billing seafood guys should create a system that allows their customers to send feedback, complaints or even about the mobile payment service they offer via the internet. This way the business will be able to cover their entire customer base.

Early Adopters

These are customers who are risk averse and are willing to adopt innovations early on. They are less concerned with “how much it costs” or “the risk attached to it” but are keen on the opportunity to try new things. They possess the following characteristics:

  1. They compose a small percentage of the buying population that is 10%-15%.
  2. They have a reach network of people that is they are greatly connected.
  3. In most cases they are very good at word to mouth advertisement.

Billing sea food guys need to understand their customers so that they can be able to identify the early adopters. The business should then proceed to introduce the service to this early adopters as they will have an influence in the advertising of the idea. Early adopters are mostly leaders in their communities therefore they possess the ability to ensure this service is known and accepted to the rest of the society.

Section B


a. Political

The use of credit payment is highly encouraged by the government especially in the western countries. Most of their transactions are paid on credit therefore the introduction of mobile payment may face a lot of resistance especially from the government. It is the role of billing seafood guys to create awareness about the benefits of mobile payment so as to try and reduce the political resistance to it.

b. Economic factors

With the increasing awareness of mobile payments, more and more people are increasingly depending on it. Whereas this is a good thing it is risky because in case of failure in the service huge losses will be felt especially by companies that fully rely on mobile payments to conduct there day to day business transactions. Keeping this in mind, Billing Seafood Guys should ensure that there exists an alternative method of payment at given case.

c. Social factors

In some countries mobile payment is yet to be fully accepted due to the cultural believes that cash payments are the most trustworthy and convenient mode of payment. This may be a problem for billing seafood guys. To overcome the business needs to embark on massive advertisement on the use of mobile payment services and its benefits.

d. Technological factors

Lack of technological infrastructure to support mobile payments service will cripple the service. Also rapid and continues technological advancement may make impossible to keep up will the changes in the mobile payment service industry. Billing seafood guys should ensure they are continuously researching about the latest technology in the industry.

e. Environmental factors

Billing seafood guys will have to consider whether offering mobile payment services will give them a competitive advantage. Business’s survival instincts are to always be at a competitive edge compared to your competitors.

f. Legal factors

The legal framework surrounding mobile payments is very complex in terms of the privacy laws that one should comply to and also the security measures one is expected to have put in place. Billing sea food guys will have to comply with the legal requirements in order to obtain a license to conduct mobile payment services.


a. Industrial rivalry

Billing seafood guys are faced with four major competitors who have the following advantages:

  1. They have a well built and known track record.
  2. They have high profile clients.
  3. They are able to offer onsite services and also
  4. They are financially stable

However, the competitors have various weaknesses which turn out to be billing seafood guy’s strengths. They include:

  1. Lack of enough personnel to handle the customer base.
  2. They barely offer any additional services such as door-to-door delivery.
  3. Lack an online presence which makes it hard to get information about the business.
  4. They offer very expensive services.

b. Threats of new entrants

To cope with the risk of new businesses entering the market, Billing seafood guys plan to become a low cost service provider making it economically unviable for new business to enter the market. For the business to become a low cost producer they need to reduce their internal cost as much as they can. Billing seafood guys plan to eliminate use of paper by providing mobile payment services.

c. Threats of substitutes

In order to prevent customers from going to other business that offer other modes of payment, Billing seafood guys need to train their customers how to use the service at the same time selling its benefits to them.


a. Strengths

  1. Billing offers additional services such as door to door deliveries.
  2. The business is able to enhance it customer experience by adoption of mobile payment.
  3. It will operate as a low cost service provider, making it economically unviable for any other business to enter the market.

b. Weakness

  1. Billing seafood guys lack enough financial backing to operate smoothly.
  2. Compared to its competitors, billing seafood guys is not known to many.

Negotiating old age identity

Negotiating old age identity

Negotiating old age identity

Barnhart, M., & Peñaloza, L. (2012). Who are you calling old? Negotiating old age identity in the elderly consumption ensemble. Journal of Consumer Research39(6), 1133-1153. The current increase in the population of the elderly people indicates that more people are involved in assisting them with consumption activities. Interviews involving the elderly assistance groups revealed that consumption in an advanced age is a group event rather than a personal phenomenon. Nonetheless, marketing scholars place much emphasis on consumption groups such as the family, friends and workplace, but have failed to focus on the aged as a consumer set. Notably, the old have identity attributable characteristics observed and utilized by their assistances, which influence their consumption. For instance, cases of the elderly people voluntarily quitting driving after experiences instances of fear, while driving, have been reported in the past. On the other hand, the elderly assistances have previously reported that in some instances they influence consumption decisions of the old people under their care. Thus, marketing studies should focus on the elderly as a consumption group to identify means of creating age friendly business.    

Kagwa, S., Boström, A., Ickert, C., & Slaughter, S. (2017). Optimising mobility through the sit-to-stand activity for older people living in residential care facilities: A qualitative interview study of healthcare aide experiences. International Journal Of Older People Nursing13(1), e12169. doi: 10.1111/opn.12169

Lin, Y., & Bao, L. (2015). “Wheelchair slow transit” system-based elderly auxiliary travel mode. Frontiers of Architectural Research4(3), 220-229.

McIntosh, I. B. (1998). Health hazards and the elderly traveler. Journal of travel medicine5(1), 27-29.                                                                                                                                           The old and very old can fly to any destination in the world. However, physiological and physical impacts of aging lead to number of challenges for elderly travelers. For instance, low cardiac pulmonary functions and poor ventilatory response to anoxia increase chances of illness to the elderly during travel. In addition, diminished physical strength indicate that the elderly cannot carry luggage for long distances. Pre-travel clinics held one month before the travel departure are considered necessary to allow special investigations, such as blood checks. Proper precautions should be observed to ensure that emergencies are controlled. For instance, checks should be conducted to ensure that medication is within reach for the traveler under medication. In addition, advising the aged traveler on the appropriate health insurance is considered necessary to ensure that the cover includes the appropriate illnesses. Furthermore, reducing the distance of the passage ways and assisting in carrying the luggage can immensely improve the aged traveler experience. Thus, addressing the health concerns of the aged can help in making transportation friendlier to the aged traveler.   

Mjelde, J. W., Dudensing, R., Brooks, J., Battista, G., Carrillo, M., Counsil, B., … & Grant, U. N. (2017). Economics of Transportation Research Needs For Rural Elderly And Transportation Disadvantaged Populations.

Richardson, A. (2010). Using customer journey maps to improve customer experience. Harvard Business Review15(1), 2-5. A customer journey involves a simple diagram, which illustrates steps followed by the customer in engaging with a company. The more touchpoints a company possesses the more complex is its customer journey map. 

Rosenbaum, M. S., Otalora, M. L., & Ramírez, G. C. (2016). The restorative potential of shopping malls. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services31, 157-165.       Restorative servicescapes in shopping centers can improve the well-being of individuals as well as the society. Previous studies in psychology have extensively explored the positive effects of green areas on physical and mental well-being of human beings. For instance, research suggests, that there exists a link between the restoration theory and the biophilic design of stores, which coalesces greenery with physical surroundings, which include shopping centers in urban areas. A further study on the subject indicated that incorporating green elements in retail areas can promote human well-being. Shoppers possess favorable attitudes and display affirmative conduct towards retail shopping centers with natural settings like restorative characteristics. Thus, to improve customer experience, hence satisfaction, business should include green components in the retail areas. 

Vaportzis, E., Giatsi Clausen, M., & Gow, A. J. (2017). Older adults perceptions of technology and barriers to interacting with tablet computers: A focus group study. Frontiers in psychology8, 1687.                                                                                                          Use of the technology to streamline or support daily activities is on the rise. In addition to the rising technology advancements, the number of the elderly people many societies around the globe is also increasing. Notably, most of the elderly people are eager to learn about and adopt new technology. However, the aged report a wide range of barriers to technology use. For instance, the elderly cite absence of instructions, low confidence and health concerns as some of the primary barriers to use of technology. Therefore, the existing use of technology to support day-to-day activities failure to incorporate age-friendly features discourages consumption by the seniors.   

Warburton, J., Scharf, T., & Walsh, K. (2016). Flying Under the Radar? Risks of Social Exclusion for Older People in Rural Communities in Australia, Ireland and Northern Ireland. Sociologia Ruralis57(4), 459-480. doi: 10.1111/soru.12129                            Risk and individualism

Age Friendly London Network. (2016). AGE FRIENDLY BUSINESS RESOURCE GUIDE. Retrieved from An age friendly community listens and reacts to the concerns of the elderly, as well as enhances active participation of all ages in community activities. Business, such as supermarkets, pharmacies, hairdressers and cafés constitute an essential part of community life. In this regard, businesses must focus on all age, especially the elderly, experience to make a community age-friendly. Notably, with the increasing numbers and the buying power of the seniors in the society, business can improve profitability by targeting the market. For instance, in Wales, people over fifty-five years of age constitute about a third of the total population and in the United Kingdom, seniors aged sixty-five and above contribute one in each five pounds spent. On matters regarding expenses, improving the experience of the elderly customers does not necessarily involve immense costs. Slight and less costly adjustments, such as in lighting, spacing, sound, hiring, information and staff training have been found to massively improve the elderly consumer’s experience. Thus, businesses adopt age friendly features to improve profitability at a lesser cost, as well contribute to the quality of life.

TELUS International. (2017). Customer Service for Seniors: Why Tech Companies are Going Retro. Retrieved May 21, 2018, from                                                                                                    Technology companies are developing age friendly digital platfrms by evaluatng the needs of the elderly consumers. Notably, more than sixty-three percent of the elderly people prefer voice interactions at the customer service. Apart from offering voice based customer service, it is essential to depict high level respect as well. In addition, the aged consumers prefer printed support, such as printed information, mostly because of hearing challenges. Fear of sharing information has increased the preference of phones and social support by the elderly consumer. Although there is no shortage of technology to support the elderly activities, some of aged requirements are not captured in the technology. For instance, current technology fail to recognize that the number of old people using telephone is increasing. Thus, old school customer support for the elderly people should consider incorporating technology.                                                                                                                                               

Conventz, S., & Thierstein, A. (2011). The knowledge economy, hub airports and accessibility. A location based perspective. The Case of Amsterdam-Schiphol. In European Regional Science Association Conference.                                                                                                  Age and income are some of the demographic variables that determine use of internet banking services. People with high levels of education are more likely to use internet banking services compared to the uneducated as well as individuals with diminished education levels. In addition the aged are less likely to use internet banking compared to millennials. Compared to their younger counterparts, the aged possess reduced levels of education, hence their chances to use internet banking are highly affected. Notably, the elderly are more conservative on matters regarding technology compared to the younger generations. Thus, low use of internet banking by the elderly indicate that the sector is yet to incorporate age-friendly features to support the elderly consumer.     

Research Project

Research Project

Research Project


The research will evaluate the information systems related solutions within a set up of an organization. Further, the paper will introduce the various aspects in regards to the information systems and their importance to the management of the organization. There are two types of information systems which will be evaluated in terms of the benefits of their operating system to the organizations and brief ways in which they work. One of these systems which will be discussed is the electronic records management systems. The importance to the organization is to provide and to maintain records within a classified scheme, disposal schedules, application retention, and controlling access and use of information in the organization. Besides, it is a software-based system with an example of such systems being Enterprise content management. The other information system discussed is the customer relationship management system. The importance to the organization is to assist in is a strategizing the operations which are applied in various departments to improve the retention of potential customers

Module 5.3 Research Project: Submission 2 – MGMT 221

The development of an information system in an organization is vital to assist in the operations. Further, these systems are the set of components which work together to manage data processing and storage system. The role is to support various aspects in running the organization such as making a decision, analyzing data, keeping records as well as communications. Notably, these information systems also combine the application of hardware, software, and the telecommunication networks which allow a company to gather and analyze the sales activities data by defining the specific targeted groups for customer satisfaction. Therefore, understanding the information system related to electronic records management and customer relationship management can be useful to achieve the objectives in an organization.

The electronic records management systems are a set computer program which is designed to keep and track records within a company. Further, the established software may be essential in the management creation as well as maintaining records within a classified scheme, disposal schedules, application retention and controlling assess and use of information in the organization (Laudon, & Laudon, 2016). The development of an electronic record management system needs to capture the records of the business systems and its applications with the involved parties. Besides, this information system does not have a similarity in implicit metadata for physical records; therefore, the extent of metadata which may require a more significant attribution. Electronic data can be made up of several distinct parts that can be used in managing reservable objects and reconstruction of a reliable and authentic replica of the original record (Penn, & Pennix, 2017). The development of this information system has evolved over the past decades with an increased demand on the use by most of the companies in the contemporary world. The evolution can be traced from the need to ensure the promotion of documents to protect them from changes over time. More importantly, the concept of electronic record management was to manage the retention and disposal of records as well as maintain the auditable track of actions taken by a company.

There are various types of an electronic records management system which have been established in the market. Enterprise content management is one of the most used methods by vendors to manage their data and records in operational activities. Many of the companies have been seeking a framework of software which can support all their needs for records, content, document collaboration, and records management (Laudon, & Laudon, 2016). As a result, the response in the market led to the integration of enterprise content management solutions. Substantially, this information system defines the strategies, tools, and methods that can be applied in storing, preserving, and also delivering content and related document for organizational processes. Enterprise content management system is essential because it covers the scope of information used by an enterprise through electronic filing within a database print stream. There are three categories of vendors which service this information system technology. One of these categories is the point solutions where the suppliers were offering a pitch for small to medium organizations for addressing the specific challenge (Laudon, & Laudon, 2016). The other one is the electronic document and records management, which offers a combination of capture document, records management, and often business process management functions — these focus on servicing the management of records in large organizations with a regular framework of high-level records management. Lastly, the framework which integrates enterprise content management which offers a wider variety of software to embracing document, records, content, and knowledge management solution.

The application of electronic record management has various benefits which can be achieved for many organizations. The facilitation of collaboration is one of the benefits which can be experienced in the use of this information system. Substantially, this is determining through collaboration between different stakeholders that enhance the operations, outsourcing, and development to be easily solved. The electronic record platforms are essential to improve the services of both internal and external activities into convent workflows, approvals of reviews and authorizing transactions (Penn, & Pennix, 2017). Similarly, it also improves the timeliness and increased document security and control in the development of paramount and regular market reasons. The regulation of contents needs to be sensitive with adequate security and control t avoid loss information from the company.

Customer relationship management system is a strategy which is applied in most organizations to improve the retention of potential customers. This information system aims to assist companies to connect with customers, enhance their profitability, and enhance streamline processes.  Further, customer relationship management can also leverage across business units with the typically need to ensure a robust and highly configurable needs of the company.  There are various features of this information system which needs to be put into consideration for it to be complete. The system is more than technology because it displays other integrated business resources to achieve its objective (Zerbino, Aloini, Dulmin, & Mininno, 2018). One of the features is the support system for the customer-centric strategy, which details customer experience. The focus of this feature entails the design of the experience, customer leadership, feedback, drives metrics that matter for customer management. The centralization of data is another feature which assists in combining all the sales, marketing, and customer service information into a central point (Laudon, & Laudon, 2016). The use of this information can then be applied to measure, keep tracking the marketing system as well as customer services activities within a company. Lastly, the automates of customer business process which details the budgeting and planning process for the company.

The benefits of customer relationship management vary depending on the level of operations of an organization. However, there is general importance which can be experienced by any company that uses this system. The sales teams can use customer relationship management to assist in understanding their sales within the market. The system can generate reliable information regarding the process of every team members in their duties to obtain sales targets. Conversely, this would, in turn, enable the management to focus on the production of goods and services. The marketing team and customer service teams can also benefit from the information produced by the customer relationship management (Zerbino, Aloini, Dulmin, & Mininno, 2018). The marketing department can forecast on a reliable and accurate opportunity by mapping the entire activities of the customers in terms of purchasing power likes and dislike of various preference goods.  The customer service team, on the other hand, can improve their communication by effectively channeling their issues into reliable outlets to reach their customers. These platforms of communications can assist the to track leads of unsatisfactory response to valued customers.

The supply chain management systems entail the management of the flow of goods and services which involves the movement as well as storage of raw materials, finished products from the production to the consumption point and the development of work-in-progress inventory. Further, these systems are also essential in the interconnection of networks, node and channel businesses, which combines the provision of services and goods needed by the customers in the supply chain management system. The focus of the supply chain systems is to involve active streamlining of the supply side of business activities to assist in maximizing the customer value and also to gain a competitive advantage within the marketplace (Liu, Ke, Wei, Gu, & Chen, 2010). Substantially, it is essential to note that supply chain management systems can also be useful to represent an effort for the suppliers to develop and implement the supply chains that are economically possible. In this regards, it is crucial to outline that the supply chain activities often span on procurement, product lifecycle management, supply chain planning order processing, and logistics management. 

In the contemporary, the application of supply chain management has advanced to technologies that suit the latest iteration of industrialization that is associated with machine planning, automation, internet of things, and sensors. The aim of these aspects are focused on transforming the way companies manufacture, conduct distribution of new products and services to the targeted markets, and also maintain their operational processes (Liu, Ke, Wei, Gu, & Chen, 2010). The integration of systems in supply chain management have influenced the operational process in the contemporary world in various ways. For instance, the function of maintenance encompasses the fact that enterprises would typically wait until a machine from a malfunctioned can be fixed through the use of smart technology. Besides, there is a possibility to predict any failure before it takes place and then makes the appropriate steps to prevent such interactions of supply chain management within an organization. Nonetheless, it is essential to understand that there are various benefits which can be achieved through the use of a supply chain management system within a company. One of the areas which have been improved through the use of this integration is enhancing efficiency and customer satisfaction (Laudon, & Laudon, 2011). Historically the focus of supply chain management has been to reduce the costs of operations in any company. These needs have been further improved to enhance customer experiences to be dependent on the products and services of the company. The experiences developed to consist of customer loyalty as predicted through the application of these systems, which in turn assist to accurately fulfill customer expectations.

The database management system is one of the information systems which assist in providing technological solutions through optimization, retrieval, and management on the storage of data from databases.  Further, the database management systems are also useful because they offer a systematic approach in the management of various interface for the users and workloads to accessing their operating systems. Notably, it is essential to put into considerations the multiple components of database management systems which are applied in an organization. The software is one of the primary database management systems which are considered as a management console to interact with as well as manage databases. The aim of the software assists to create, manage, and access the process in the databases (Hoffer, Ramesh, & Topi, 2011). Data is also another component which needs to be put into consideration. The database management system contains operational data with records accessed to perform essential functions. Moreover, the data may consist of the files such as information from the administration, index files, and data dictionaries. These are used in the representation of data flows, structure, ownership as well as relationships to other objects. The procedures and database languages can also be defined as the other component. The procedures are mainly the instructions that are used for database management to guide the users in modifying and designing process in the databases. The database languages, on the other hand, are essential in supporting the access, modification, storage, and also retrieving data from the databases. Lastly, other components of the database management system consist of a query processor, database, engine, reporting, and manager. The query process is one of the fundamental elements which acts as the intermediary which exist between the users and data engine of the database management system (Hoffer, Ramesh, & Topi, 2011). The aim is to help in communicating query requests. The database manager and engine are used to handle data and queries at runtime by performing an associated functionality within the databases. The database engine, on the other hand, is the core software that can perform the functions which are associated with storage and retrieval purposes.

The database management systems are also crucial in linking the creation of management of data. There are various benefits which need to be understood by any organization through the application of a database management system. One of the advantages it is required for data to access within the company because it is dependent on a programming language referred to as query language (Färber, Cha, Primsch,  Bornhövd,  Sigg, & Lehner, 2012). Similarly, it is also needed for maintaining strong relationships between data. The aim of this is to allow data tables to have a relationship with one another. These may consist of information about the data of employees, products, and services, among others.


In general, the development of information systems within an organization is essential in modern markets. The level of competition experienced by different companies is challenging without the application of these tools. The primary objective of information technology systems is to improve communication, customer satisfaction, and profitability in the long run. Therefore, the use of electronic records management and customer relationship management systems are vital to improve in the service delivery of goods and services for organizations in the contemporary market. The supply chain management is useful for a company to manage the flow of goods and services. These, in turn, enhance the involves the movement as well as storage of raw materials, finished products from the production to the consumption point and the development of work-in-progress inventory. On the other hand, the database management system is also an information system which assists in providing technological solutions through optimization, retrieval, and management on the storage of data from databases of a company.


Laudon, K. C., & Laudon, J. P. (2016). Management information system. Pearson Education India.

Penn, I. A., & Pennix, G. B. (2017). Records management handbook. Routledge.

Zerbino, P., Aloini, D., Dulmin, R., & Mininno, V. (2018). Big Data-enabled customer relationship management: A holistic approach. Information Processing & Management54(5), 818-846.

Liu, H., Ke, W., Wei, K. K., Gu, J., & Chen, H. (2010). The role of institutional pressures and organizational culture in the firm’s intention to adopt internet-enabled supply chain management systems. Journal of Operations Management28(5), 372-384.

Laudon, K. C., & Laudon, J. P. (2011). Essentials of management information systems. Upper Saddle River: Pearson.

Färber, F., Cha, S. K., Primsch, J., Bornhövd, C., Sigg, S., & Lehner, W. (2012). SAP HANA database: data management for modern business applications. ACM Sigmod Record40(4), 45-51.

Hoffer, J. A., Ramesh, V., & Topi, H. (2011). Modern database management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall,.

Legislation Comparison Grid

Legislation Comparison Grid

Agenda Comparison Grid Template  


Agenda Comparison Grid and Fact Sheet or Talking Points Brief Assignment Template for Part 1 and Part 2

Part 1: Legislation Comparison Grid

Use this Agenda Comparison Grid to document information about the population health/healthcare issue your selected and the presidential agendas. By completing this grid, you will develop a more in depth understanding of your selected issue and how you might position it politically based on the presidential agendas.

You will use the information in the Part 1: Agenda Comparison Grid to complete the remaining Part 2 and Part 3 of your Assignment.

Determine the legislative intent of the bill you have reviewedThe Universal Healthcare Coverage is one of the proponent bills which aims to ensure that everyone can access healthcare services they require without the risk of financial impoverishment. This is based on the significant or despite the social-economic situation of the patients. The intent of this bill promotes cases of preventive, curative palliative health services as well as reliability for sufficient health care (, 2019).
The proponent of this bill has been focused to ensure that healthcare organizations, insurance companies can be responsible to play a critical role to push formulate and implement universal health coverage. Besides the push is to ensure sustainable development and improved quality of delivery as well as well being of people within the community Orentlicher, 2012).The opponent on the other hand address the differences in the understandings experienced to formulate and implement the policy in accordance with the general significance (Orentlicher, 2012). 
Identify the proponents/opponents of the bill
Identify the target populations addressed by the bill.The target population which is addressed by this bill is mainly the unprivileged individual who cannot afford higher costs of healthcare services. The services which are expected to be offered ranges from individual patients to the public services that protect the health of entire populations (Orentlicher, 2012). 
Where in the process is the bill currently? Is it in hearings or committees?The bill is currently under discussion by the congress where the possibility of changes needed to be addressed are still made by the legislatures (Orentlicher, 2012). The main ideas expressed are mainly the repeal of the affordable act to consequently reverse acts of expanded Medicaid program within the country. 
Is it receiving press coverage?The bill has been one of the contenders for press coverage since its initiation in the house of congress. The main concern is the challenges experienced to pass the bill by the majority of legislatures (Orentlicher, 2012).    

Part 2: Legislation Testimony/Advocacy Statement

Using the information, you recorded in Part 1: Agenda Comparison Grid, complete the following to document information about the population health/healthcare issue your selected.

Advocate a position for the bill you selected and write testimony in support of your position.The strategic aim of the universal healthcare bill is critical since it ensures that everyone can use health services without financial ruin. The position of this bill would envision a single-payer health care system. Substantially, the focus would be on the federal government to provide universal coverage to all Americans (, 2019). Therefore, this system would also eliminate the Medicare and Medicaid systems with only exceptions of some elective procedures.
Describe how you would address the opponent to your position. Be specific and provide examples.One of the ways in which I would address the opponent of this bill would be in the context of ensuring a sustainable need for improving the services. Conversely, this would be based on the fact that the establishment of this bill could assist in saving more than $2 trillion over a period of 10 years when comparing the existing costs. substantially, this would eliminate the high costs of most paperwork which are handled by the insurance industry presently (Kumar, Ghildayal & Shah, 2011). People in America spend twice as much per person for health care services compared to other industrialized nations in the world. for instance, the procedures to obtain immediate care would be significantly reduced as seen from the excess paperwork of insurances.
Recommend at least one amendment to the bill in support of your position.The medical outcomes are also the key areas considered to be the aspect which improves life expectancy which in turn increases the productivity of the country (Kumar, Ghildayal & Shah, 2011).Nonetheless, the amendment of the bill which can be put in place is the need to access quality at the same time affordable health care which is the basic human right that every American deserves. The proponent of universal health care is determined as a human right aspect and should be constitutionally protected.  

Marking plan for coca cola

Marking plan for coca cola

Marking plan for coca cola

Executive summary

The Coca-Cola company is one of the organizations leading in the manufacturing of carbonated soft drink. The development and evolution of the company have grown into different levels until the 20th century, where it has dominated the food and beverage industry. The company was initially founded in 1885 in Columbus, Georgia by Pemberton eagle and chemical house. Further, various activities in the sales and branding which have taken place until its current management operations. For instance, the company was set for incorporation in 1892 and later in 1919 it was purchased by a group of investors for $25 million and set for reincorporation by selling 500000 public shares at $40 per share.

In the 21st century, the company made profound changes in terms of its operations in various regions in the world (Barkay, 2013). Coca-Cola company has implemented its strategies in marketing to maintain its market share in multiple perspectives to make profits. The company is operating in more than 200 countries and sells a variety of sparkling and beverages. Notably, Coca-Cola generates 60% of its earnings outside of united states, although most of its operating profits are managed within the country (Barkay, 2013). Therefore, it is essential to address the mission, statement, marketing analysis, which consist of competition, global network the SWOT analysis and summary of the marketing structure in the industry.

Company Overview

The Mission Statements 

The business world is challenging for most of the companies and requires the development of mission statements and objectives to guide them in their operations. Therefore, the mission statement of the Coca-Cola company is to inspire established moments of optimism and happiness through the brands and actions. Similarly, it also focusses on refreshing the world in mind, spirit and body by creating value and making a difference in people’s lives. 

Product/service description

Coca-Cola is known for its production of carbonated soft drinks beverages in the industry. Additionally, for many decades, the brands which are produced by Coca-Cola company consist of the minute maid, diet coke, gold peak, Coca-Cola Zero, Dasani, Powerade, Fanta sprite and ice dew. Moreover, through its concentrate operations, the organization often sells concentrates and the syrups mainly to the authorized bottling and canning operators (Barkay, 2013). The partners either combines the foci with the sweeteners depending on the products to be produced and sparkling water. The finished products or beverages are packaged within the authorized containers such as cans and refillable glass and bottles. Besides, these finished products are then sold directly to the retailers or through the wholesalers. Notably, outside the united states, the company sells the concentrates for fountain beverages to its bottling partners. The other brands which the company product is the monster energy which is only produced and distributed to designated international markets, Canada and the United States (Allen, 2011). Coca-Cola company also manufactures and distributes certain brands to a third party and consist of brands of Dr Pepper Snapple, which is a joint venture with the nestle corporation. The distribution of these products is mainly destined to the European and Canada markets


Although Coca-Cola is the leading company in terms of market share in the world, it also has various competitions in different regions. One of the biggest competitors in the united states is called the Pepsi company. Pepsi company was formed in 1965 with a struggle to develop their products and revenue generation for the past decades. The company has 20 billion-dollar brands of products portfolio with the U.S being its most significant market share in an intense competition with Coca-Cola (Gupta, 2015). The other competitor for Coca-Cola is Dr Pepper Snapple, which also has more than 50 brands. Its revenue as of 2017 was 6.4 billion dollars, which were earned from united states of America. The other competitors consist of Nestle and Parle, which operates in different regions. Parle is an Indian brand which competes under the specific product categories, which include juice and water. 

Global network

Coca-Cola company is considered as a worldwide corporation which operates in more than 200 countries. The company has employed different specialists to assist in the management of its activities in different markets. It has 62 000 employees who work within its premises as marketers’ managers and subordinate employees.

The SWOT analysis

The SWOT analysis assists in addressing the internal and external environmental factors which are associated with the operation of the Coca-Cola company. These elements are useful to determine the strength, weakness opportunities and threats of the organization in the market.  

The strength of coca cola consists of brand equity enjoyed by the company this is one of the advantages since its presence can be felt in the world with a unique brand identity. In most cases, this one of the valuable assets in which the company invested to keep being the leader in the market. The other strength is Company valuation which is recognized to be one of the valuable organizations in terms of revenue generation and assets combined. Valuation indicates the brand value where various factories can spread out in the world and completes operations costs and profits in the market (Allen, 2011). 

Weaknesses of coca cola is the level of competition with Pepsi which is incorporated as a high level of competition to Coca-Cola, making it efficient in its operations to avoid the effects of losing customers and market share.  The other weaknesses is product diversification is low which is also a challenge for Coca-Cola company. For instance, Pepsi company have made a smart move to increase its product portfolio by diversification into snacks segments. The Opportunity of coca cola is diversification which is the way to improve a healthy operation of the beverage industry to the customers. As a result, this may ensure an improvement in revenue generation from customers across different markets (Allen, 2011). 

Supply chain management system- the supply chain used by the company is focused on completing business transportations and distributions. As a result, this will assist in keeping strict in the watch to bring the cost down. Market the lesser selling products is another factor which states that the portfolio of Coca-Cola is determined to find the accepted ways to minimize the cost of the advertisement. They concentrate on the marketing of these products by raising sales of the products to gain revenue to the company. The threats of coca cola is the process of Sourcing of raw materials- some resources such as water is considered to be the threat to Coca-Cola company. This has been suspected given the massive consumption of water in the production of their products. The main reason for this is based on climate change and regions in various countries which face scarcity of water (Allen, 2011). Indirect competitors is also another factor which describes indirect competitors, such as coffee chains within the market. These may consist of Starbucks, costa coffee, café coffee day, among others. 

Market Segment and Brand Analysis

The marketing strategy for Coca-Cola is based on the use of competitive positioning to determine its segmentation. Besides its segmentation has been distinguished into different forms which suit their operating systems. The geographical segmentation is one of the market segments which the company used to target specific customers of varying age groups, ethnic, sexes and lifestyle (Shaik, & Ritter, 2012). For instance, the production of oasis juice was made for younger age groups in the market. Besides, Coca-Cola has also implemented the psychographics segmentation, where it uses the ability or perception that people recognize the brand. Therefore, they will automatically use the products 

4Ps, branding strategy

Product strategy: the corporate present to the market the finest, latest and advanced line of production of non-alcoholic drinks globally

Pricing strategy: the corporate’s environmental analysis relates to its appraising policy. The notion for Coca-Cola is to use price leadership in its operations to satisfy the customers. The effort to set this aspect is based on the need to present the prices for the competitors in the market (Shaik, & Ritter, 2012). 

Distribution strategy: this describes the corporate’s delivery, which is placed advantageously around the globe. The latest form of supply chain management used by Coca-Cola is based on franchising to the partners. 

Promotion strategy: The corporate is prevalent across the world to be the principal of manufacturing the beverages. The primary strategy used by Coca-Cola is mainly through closing the gaps through various platforms (Shaik, & Ritter, 2012). The advertisements are in magazines, TV ads, printed newspapers, and internet websites. 


Allen, A. (2011). The role of history in place marketing: Can branding create a sense of place?. Journal of Town & City Management2(1).

Barkay, T. (2013). When business and community meet: A case study of Coca-Cola. Critical Sociology39(2), 277-293.

Gupta, V. (2015). Content Marketing: Say Something; Say It Well; Say It Often. Tillgänglig på internet: http://www. academia. edu/13045097/Content_Marketing_Say_Something_Say_It_Well _Say_It_Often [Hämtad: 10 Februari 2018].

Shaik, N., & Ritter, S. (2012). Social Media Based Relationship Marketing. In E-Marketing: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications (pp. 88-110). IGI Global.

EPC in a Company

EPC in a Company

EPC in a Company

The Premium Patio Furniture manufactures the lawn, garden furniture as well as building. Further, the development of the event-driven process chain will be useful for the business process modeling to configure the execution of enterprise resource planning as well as the need to improve the relevant process (Riehle, Jannaber, Karhof, Thomas, Delfmann, & Becker, 2016). As a result, the architecture of this integrated system will address the following events within the organization.

The Order Fulfillment Clerk

            This will be the initial action, and the actors responsible for managing this event will be clerks. Their responsibility will be to arrange the delivery system of the expected orders to the customers. There are various types of bulk order which are considered under this aspect. These consist of retailers, direct sales, as well as the customer.

The Sales Representatives

            The Sales Representatives will be the next actor in the process with the ability to connect with the respective retailers as well as other individual customers to get orders. The elements underlying in this element consist of the potential builders for future sales and retailers.

The Installer

            The Installer in the event process chain will assist in the management of installation controls and dates for orders. Besides, they will be assigned to install the orders obtained during the schedules period agreed with the customers.

Assembly/ Packer

            Assembly will be the last event received during the delivery date from the order fulfillment clerks. The beginning of each day, there will be an assessment to ensure the orders provided are processed accordingly to the expected customers. The priority by the company is given to shipments for the orders packed after the assembly and packing is completed from the company.

            Conclusively, it is essential to understand that the development of the event-driven process chain can support business process modeling in configuring resource planning within as organizational operational. The processes consist of the order fulfillment clerk, the sales representatives, the installer and assembly of the orders.

Below is the EPC diagram of the Premium Patio Furniture


Riehle, D. M., Jannaber, S., Karhof, A., Thomas, O., Delfmann, P., & Becker, J. (2016). On the de-facto Standard of Event-driven Process Chains: How EPC is defined in Literature. Modellierung 2016.

Amjad, A, AzamF., Anwar, M.W&Butt, W.H(2017). verification of eventdriven process chain with with timed automata and time petri nets. In 2017 9th IEEE-GCCconference and Exihibition (GCCE).(pp. 1-6).

Windisch, J., Vaatainen, K, Anttila, P, Nivala, M., Laitila, J., Asikainen, A,  &Sikanen, L (2015). Descret-event simulation of an information based raw material allocation process for increasing the effeciency of an energy wood supply chain. applied energy, 149, 315-325.

Bank of America’s Wealth Management

Bank of America’s Wealth Management

Bank of America’s Wealth Management

Bank of America’s Wealth-Management Business Bucks Trend in Volatile Quarter; BofA’s wealth-management revenue rose 7% in the fourth quarter, while wild stock-market swings at the end of 2018 hurt rivals

Question one

The article describes wealth management business in the wall street in regards to the rise and existing rivals during the wild fourth quarter, the company under watch in the article is the Bank of America Corporation. Further, it is noted that the parent company of Merrill Lynch and the U.S Trust wealth management received an increase in revenue of about 7%, which is equivalent to 4.99 billion from a year earlier. Substantially this is one of the examples experienced as the violence stock marketing swings during 2018 (Beilfuss, 2019).

The situation also affected other brokerage firms where they diminished the account balances by generating lower fees for personal financial advice. It is also noted that during this time, most of the existing brokerage firms have started to shift their customers to fee-based accounts to obtain commissions. This is because the fortunes of these firms are considered to be tied closely with the moves of the market (Beilfuss, 2019). The charge for these services consists of about 1 to 25 of the value of customers’ assets. The charging of fees is said to be critical in realizing reliable revenue since the commissions often tend to be sporadic, and regulatory efforts within recent years have been preferred.

Question two

One of the real-life situations which I have experience from the article is based on the fact that my friend had been a victim in this article. Substantially, this took place when my friend a group decided to save money for that they could invest in the future, specifically in the real estate sector. In the beginning, their mission was to keep before they begin implementing their goals initially. However, little did they complete their project did they realize that the mist of these wealth management businesses had established such rules in their system (Beilfuss, 2019). Their total investment for management was one million in return, which would mean a fee of $20000 to be paid per year.

Regarding this initiative of my friend, I believed the need for such people to have a background check and address the issue of wealth management before making critical decisions for their resources. Notably, the article address issues involved in the breakage of wealth management, and this may require consultations to manage the wealth of people.

Question three

My field of study is mainly in business management, and it has various impacts on the article. Business management is primarily entailing the act of allocating resources to assist in accomplishing the desired goals as well as the objectives to effectively and efficiently achieve the objectives of an organization. The main focus is to ensure that there is proper planning, staffing organizing controlling leading an organization (Beilfuss, 2019). Therefore, it relates to this article news in that it provides a perspective of managing the asses that are tied with the current and future financial resources of an individual or entity, as illustrated in the article. Similarly, this also related to the article in that it can provide an overview assisting the clients in understanding how they can achieve their goals through planning their resources with the organization. The benefit of this is to minimize the occurrence of risks involved.

Question four

There are various factors which I would like to understand in regards to the article. The first one consists of the need to determine the role and importance of wealth management for an individual or group in the long run. The aim concern under this element is to learn how it is related to the transfer of wealth from one person to another, factors to consider to keep or maintain wealth. Moreover, in regards to the role of wealth management, what would be the goals that can be expected from a client based on their decision to invest(Beilfuss, 2019). The other issue which I would also like to understand from the article is that what causes the fluctuations and differences in the percentage profits of different companies in the industry. Substantially, this is because there is either an increased rate in profitability or a decrease. Lastly, the question to ask from the article is the understanding of what factors brokerage firms can address to maintain their income in the competitive market.


Beilfuss, Lisa (2019, Jan 17), Bank of America’s Wealth-Management Business Bucks Trend in Volatile Quarter; BofA’s wealth-management revenue rose 7% in the fourth quarter, while wild stock-market swings at the end of 2018 hurt rivals Wall Street Journal (Online) ; New York, N.Y. [New York, N.Y]

Legislation Comparison Grid and Testimony/Advocacy Statement

Legislation Comparison Grid and Testimony/Advocacy Statement

Legislation Comparison Grid and Testimony/Advocacy Statement

The United States has made history by amending the Family First Prevention Services Act as the policy will not only improve the welfare of children, who are the future of the nation but also enhance unity among family members. The amendment on Title IV-B and Title IV-E of the social security act to child welfare policies will be of great significance to the public since it intends to improve children welfare programs countrywide by offering services to families who risk entering foster care. I expect the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to provide further directions on how to implement the Family First policy as soon as possible.

It is important to note that the manner and environment in which children grow up influences the character of the children in their adulthood. Children have a right to stay with their family members where they can receive special attention. When children grow in foster care families, they are likely to have traumatic experiences as a result of the restrictions put in place in foster care homes. Failure to control the number of children that grow in foster care will result in a generation with no values or skills to raise a family. By allowing reimbursement for substance abuse treatment, offering mental health services, and training parents on parenting skills, the law will help reduce the cases of children joining foster care. In the unavoidable situation of children entering foster care or those who are already in foster care, the bill aims to improve the well-being of the children by offering special needs and ensuring that they grow up in an environment with a family-like setting.

Furthermore, the policy of not reimbursing states which hold children in foster care for longer than the stipulated period should be viewed as motivation and not a punishment to the respective state authorities. Investing in the future of young people is the sure way of securing the future of the country.  The federal government should, therefore, observe strictness on the period within which a state is allowed to keep a child in foster care as it explores alternatives. 


KILLETT, S. (2018, November 8). Implement the Family First Prevention Services Act. New York Amsterdam News, p. 12.