Reflective Essay- Compare and Contrast

Reflective Essay- Compare and Contrast

Reflective Essay- Compare and Contrast

a)    While doing the comparative analysis between Anna Quindlen’s “Uncle Sam and Aunt Samantha” and Kathryn Lopez’s “Egg Heads,” the process was easy and stress-free. With a good understanding of the topics and having rhetorically analyzed both articles in the previous assignments, I could easily note the points at which the articles were similar and the aspects that differed in the two. Once again, the process of analyzing the drafts of my group mates and peer reviewing their work gave me more insight into how to handle the assignment.

b)    i) Personally, the idea of discussing my group mates’ work helped me a lot since I could see where our works differed and I would do more research from the original articles and our notes to determine the right way of handling the issue.

ii) The step by step analysis of the essays, the presentation of drafts of the assignment before providing the ultimate draft and the pre-reviews of other students’ drafts made the process perfect.

c)    I believe my final draft has got adequate content and I am satisfied with it. Due to the recommended length of this essay, I merged some ideas and discussed them as one. Comparing and contrasting the two articles and comparing my work to that of my peers made me realize the different perspectives with which people see a single concept. I have learnt to read materials with an open mind as there is more to writing that lies beyond the story itself.

Rhetorical strategies/elements

Rhetorical strategies/elements

Rhetorical strategies/elements

  1. Does the central claim/thesis mention the article the writer will analyze and how the writer will analyze the essay in question (the rhetorical strategies/elements being analyzed)? LIST THESE POINTS. If not, what should the writer add/subtract? Restate the thesis in your own words.

The thesis is well stated as it contains the authors name, the message she intends to pass across and her intended audience. The author uses a great tone and indicates good understanding of the topic which sets the reader on the right pace and tone. She brings clarity on the issue by stating that at first one would mistake the article for a prostitution related topic.

  • Does the introduction contain general background on both a) the article that will be evaluated and b) the rhetorical strategies that will be used? List bullet points of the background contained in the intro. Is there anything the writer should add or take out? (Note: The writer must provide background on the article being analyzed, but it’s not necessary for them to give a description of all the rhetorical elements being analyzed.)

The introduction is perfect as it takes the reader to exactly where the story began and helps the reader understand and relate to the environment where the egg donation occurs and the procedures followed. However, the writer did not bring the background of the rhetorical components which should be mentioned just before stating the thesis. 

  • Does the writer move smoothly from the background information on the article (and the components of rhetorical analysis (Rhetorical strategies/elements)that they’ll be focusing on, if those are included) to the thesis? What works for you here? If the transition needs help, what do you suggest the writer try?

The writer began with a good background of the article stating what prompts the author to write the article. However, she does not move smoothly to the thesis statement. She failed to mention the rhetorical devices that she would discuss in the body paragraphs. Personally, I would state several rhetorical components immediately after a brief introduction to tell the reader what to expect in the body. The thesis statement would then follow up as the last statement in the introductory paragraph.

  • Does each body paragraph contain a topic sentence? Does each topic sentence contain a point that comes directly from the thesis? List the points from all topic sentences in the draft (paraphrasing or very short answers are fine. You don’t need to recreate the topic sentences). Note: If the writer included a separate paragraph summarizing the article, that doesn’t count as an analytical body paragraph.

Some body paragraphs begin with a topic sentence which direct the reader on the main ideas which include:

  •  money is the driving factor for egg donation hence the influx in numbers of egg-donors.
  • The future of egg donation
  • Does each body paragraph contain at least 1 (and no more than 3) example(s) from the essay being discussed in those paragraphs? Do the examples support the topic of the paragraphs? Are the quotations INTRODUCED and properly CITED? What could the writer do to improve their body paragraphs?

Each bode paragraph contains a claim or two which are adequately supported with several examples and quotations. All the evidences and direct quotations are correctly cited from the text.

  • Does each body paragraph contain enough evidence to really prove the writer’s point? For instance, if the writer says that Quindlen or Lopez stacks the deck in favor of her position and ignores other points of view, is there enough evidence in the body paragraph to really demonstrate that this assertion is true? Note which body paragraphs could use more support (or which body paragraphs have too much support, which might prove to be distracting or confusing), and offer suggestions on how the writer might improve those paragraphs. Feel free to use their best paragraph as an example of what they should be doing in all of their body paragraphs.

The paragraphs contain relevant examples  to explain the major points and the she closes every paragraph with a personal opinion which is an indication of how wee she understands the topic and can relate it to the real world situation.

  • Does the writer explain HOW each example proves their point? Choose one well-written explanation and tell the writer why it’s effective. For the other explanations, what should the writer add or remove to improve them (if they need improving)?

“Another important idea Kathryn wanted to inform the audience about is the future of egg donors. Introducing and expanding on this topic is very important because this can make the article much more relevant when the audience is reading it years later. “Unfortunately, the future looks bright for the egg market”. “Young women will be able to freeze their own eggs and have them thawed and fertilized once they are ready for the intrusion of children in their lives.” The key word Kathryn uses here is “unfortunately”. This sets the tone for the article and further supports her stance that she is against egg donation. Even though Kathryn is introducing facts about new technology with frozen donor eggs, she still gets her point across that she is against it. As a writer it is very important to introduce and expand on both sides of your argument or topic. Kathryn is simply stating why egg donation is becoming so popular and what it will look like in the future. This does not mean she supports it. Kathryn introduces great counter arguments by bringing up specific instances where egg donation has went very wrong.”

The above paragraph was very effective in delivering the author’s thoughts. It begins with a topic statement to guide the reader on what to expect. The writer then narrated the future of egg donation which claims to be very bright. She goes ahead to justify her point using a direct quotation to show that the writer does not like the fact that egg donation is becoming famous every day. 

  • Look at the way the essay is organized. Does the essay make logical sense the way it’s organized? If not, what should the writer change?

The essay is well organized. However, I think the writer delved so much on the contents of the essay and not rhetorical analysis. The writer should shorten her introduction to give adequate space for rhetorical analysis and should talk of the components of rhetorical analysis which author Kathryn uses to convince her readers.

  • Look at the conclusion. Does it make the essay feel finished without just summarizing? What do you want to see more or less of in the conclusion?

I think the conlusion summarizes more of the article and not the rhetorical components. I would suggest that she talks of the strategic devices that Kathryn uses to convey her message effectively.

  1. What’s the best thing about this essay? Why’s it good?

The essay chronological flow of events is an indication of a writer who understood the topic well. The writer must have read and mastered the topic keenly before analyzing it.

  1. What’s the most important thing for the writer of this essay to fix or change? Why’s it so important?

The writer should include several rhetorical elements, which she intends to discuss, in her thesis statement. The writer should also drop the majority of her summary from her introduction since it is longer and a bit too close to the original. Cutting it down would give more room to work with the rhetorical elements mentioned in the thesis.

  1. If you have the time, mark any proofreading errors.

The writer proofread the work keenly since I noticed no grammatical error in the essay.

Dichotomy between War and Peace

Dichotomy between War and Peace

Dichotomy between War and Peace

Dichotomy between War and Peace

The Iliad is a story of Trojan war which begins after the Greek forces siege Troy. The conflict starts when Troy’s king captures a beautiful girl named Helen from Achaeans. The Achaeans travel to Troy to bring her back, and they begin by attacking cities and taking women into captivity while grabbing treasures. Apollo of Apollo named Chryses approaches Achaeans and begs for the release of his daughter who is among the captives, but Agamemnon, the leader of Achaeans, refuses which makes the priest to punish the army with a plague. What follows is a series of war coupled with a desire for revenge and betrayals. The fight only ends after Achilles one of the greatest warriors from the Greek side kills Hector a warrior from Troy in retaliation of the death of his friend Patroclus. Leaders, both in the Iliad and the society today, always have the option of choosing peaceful alternatives but most of them prefer chaotic options. 

A dichotomy refers to two contrasting visions of life. Homer, the author of the book, brings out a tragic dichotomy severally in the poem. First, there is the dichotomy since in the lives of Achilles and Hector who had the option of avoiding the war by choosing a peaceful life, with average wealth and respect for humanity. A quiet life seems possible judging from the several cases when the Trojans and Greeks meet in harmony and whenever the heroes question the significance of the wars. On the other hand, there is the greed for extreme wealth and glory. Like the author puts it, “the warriors rage like something more than a man.” Achilles’ shield bears the most pronounced view of the author’s tragic dichotomy. It carries a peaceful city and a chaotic city. If the judges spoke justice, there was a chance for a city full of happiness and merry, but the love for heroism surpasses the love for humanity resulting in a town of war.

The contrast between suffering and understanding/ war and peace witnessed in the Iliad is very significant to the world today. First, there is the issue of leaders who are hungry for power and will stop at nothing to obtain it. Political instability is mostly witnessed in the African continent when president’s lose elections and refuse to step down leading to civil wars and forcing the rest of the world to intervene (Holslag, 2011). There have been cases of altering election results even in some western countries which always results in enmity and hatred since people are denied their constitutional right to have democratically elected leaders. 

Corruption is also reducing countries to skeletons. Citizens trust their leaders with the public facilities, but the leaders use the facilities for their gains. Embezzlement of federal funds and keeping them in offshore accounts while citizens suffer has become so common among leaders (Ankamah & Manzoor, 2018).  It is unfortunate that today, there are people who go without basic needs despite paying taxes to governments. Besides, it is the responsibility of the government to offer social amenities like health facilities to its citizens ( Phakathi, 2018). The issue of corruption has increased the cost of living across the globe while fueling the rate of inflation.

Leaders have the option of choosing peace by accepting the results of elections and becoming content with their incomes. However, most leaders prefer power and wealth leading to chaotic nations full of bloodshed. Also, there are cases where millions of people including children die out of hunger while a few people keep billions in their accounts which would otherwise promote agricultural activities or purchase food for the suffering. It is unreasonable to learn that there are people who die from diseases like malaria today. In conclusion, the rate of dichotomy in the world today summarizes the economy into a man eat man society.    


Ankamah, S. S., & Manzoor E Khoda, S. M. (2018). Political will and government anti‐corruption efforts: What does the evidence say? Public Administration & Development, 38(1), 3–14.

Holslag, J. (2011). China and the coups: Coping with political instability in Africa. African Affairs, 110(440), 367–386.

Phakathi, M. (2018). An analysis of the Responses of the African Union to the coup in Burkina Faso (2015) and Zimbabwe (2017). Journal of African Union Studies, 7(3), 129–145.

Development of a common future

Development of a common future

The phrase “development of a common future “ refers to development that satisfies the needs of the present without affecting the ability of the coming generations to meet their own needs. Conversely, the phrase “future of commons” refers to the future of resources which belong to the whole community. Implementation of the project by the Malaysian government to construct the proposed Bakun Dam which will cost $10 billion, will impact negatively to the environment. Besides the huge budget, the dam will lead to the clearing of forests and forcing the natives out of their land. The government intends to provide water and hydro-electric power but at the expense of the people’s source of livelihoods and homes.

Currently, the rate of deforestation in Sawarak is severe, and if the trend persists, there will be no forests in the region except for the already gazetted National parks. Allowing timber companies to continue logging activities is also increasing the rate of corruption in the country. As a result, the logging activities have adversely polluted rivers and water sources in the area. The population which lives in the forest are forced to flee from their homes while the timber companies refuse to compensate for the damaged farmlands, crops and burial grounds.

The intention of constructing a dam is suitable for both the current and future generations. However, clearing down forests will lead to permanent environmental damages which will affect the future generations. The rainfall received in the region will reduce significantly. People will be left with no homes or land to till, and the government will have reduced their source of revenue and thus affect the provision of social amenities such as health and education facilities.  As a result, the government will subject the current generation to suffering with a promise of improving the living conditions of the coming generations. Unfortunately, deforestation affects both today and the future.

AOL and Time Warner Merger

AOL and Time Warner Merger

Business mergers and acquisitions usually face setbacks some of which are very disastrous and may lead to the closure of a company. An example of such a disaster occurred in January 2000 when the AOL and the Time Warner combined their resources as AOL paid $ 165 billion to acquire Time Warner. AOL was dominating the industry at the time. Its stocks had high values in the market which made the company be at the top of other blue-chip companies. Conversely, Time Warner was struggling in the industry, and they thought a merger would result in mutual benefits by both companies. AOL was to benefit from Time Warner’s cable network while Time Warner would enjoy a massive number of subscribers.

The experts, however, failed to investigate the cultures of the companies and only did due diligence on the figures. During the economic recession in 2002, AOL lacked enough cash and consequently had to write off approximately 99 billion dollars. The number of subscribers and subscription revenue also reduced drastically. AOL’s stock fell from $226 billion to about $20 billion (Munk, 12). Internet broadband was also gaining popularity and was replacing AOL’s dial-up internet . The company’s payment on usage and monthly subscriptions system was no longer marketable, and the merge could no longer stand.

Analysis of the AOL and Time Warner Merge using the Meta–Model Change

Mergers and acquisitions require commitment and strong planning to be successful. Most of the challenges encountered during merges arise from the human factors and therefore need leaders from both companies who understand the value of the employees to the company to oversee the process.  Below are some of the factors to be considered when merging.

The power of communication.

Communications fall under preparation in the meta-model of change. It encompasses goal setting, preparing strategies and planning interventions. The merging parties should share merger information such as merger goals, key milestones, and the workforce plan to eliminate fear and suspicions.  The communication would also help in setting the purposes of the merger which includes identifying how each party would benefit in the process. The companies can also lay down strategies that would be used in the process and formulate intervention programs that would be initiated should problems occur during and after the merger.

Definition of roles

Definition of roles appears under the transition in the meta-model of change. The leaders of both organizations have to take proactive roles here to keep the organization inclined with change (Achim, 73). When making acquisitions, the employer adds employees to the existing number. It is crucial to define the functions of employees to avoid duplication of roles which may bring conflicts. Well-defined responsibilities would make it easier to identify upcoming issues in the merged company so that they can be handled earlier. In the case of AOL, the company recognized mistakes when it was too late which hindered proper intervention.


Experts attribute the problems of the merger between AOL and Time Warner to their different cultures. The issue of culture falls under the validating the need in the meta-model change. It involves the leadership of both companies evaluating the importance of changing the status quo. It is advisable that the managers acknowledge that the stimulus warrants change in the organization. Maintaining cultures of the previous companies may result in a culture clash and hence conflicts among employees or consumers and may affect the company in the long term.

The fall of the two companies became irreversible from the beginning of the merge when the people chosen to effect the merge failed assumed important aspects like the difference in the culture of the businesses. The difference gave rise to conflicts between the aggressive employees and customers of AOL and the employees of Time Warner. Besides, the companies did not predict how changes in the environment could impact the organization and consequently had inadequate measures in place to handle the situation should it occur. 

Work Citations

Achim, Sorin Adrian. “Recent trends in the study of merges and acquisitions.” Economics and Management (2015).

Munk, Nina. Fools Rush in: Steve Case, Jerry Levin, and the Unmaking of Aol Time Warner. , 2009. Internet resource.

biological remains of human beings

biological remains of human beings

biological remains of human beings


Studying the biological remains of human beings is one of the most controversial activities anthropologists undertake. Most people misunderstand the motives of physical anthropologists in studying the remains of humans as it seems unfathomable. The native Americans among many other communities have very different beliefs concerning touching remains of the dead. However, to the anthropologists, studying the remains along with the burial context is of much significance. The study of the remains help the scientists to u7nderstsnd the origin, heritage, movements and the behaviors of the individuals regarding their adaptation and survival of the people in the environment.

Scientists make a microscopic diagnosis from the remains to understand the characters of the people. For example, by observing the skeletal remains and conducting microscopic diagnostics scientists can tell the shape, size, and process of development of the body. Additionally, combining medical knowledge with the observation of the remains enables researchers to determine chronic lesions that could have been influenced by joint, genetic, neoplastic, traumatic,  infectious, and metabolic processes. The study also helps in establishing their surgical and methods of treatment. The process involves examining the remains and the objects found in the surrounding. Similar observations indicate that some communities of the past performed forms of medical treatment like splinting of fractured bones.

Macroscopic diagnostics on human beings have previously been used in obtaining demographic information like the gender of the individuals, ethnicity, age and the population distribution of the people. Since people of different genders performed different roles in many communities, scientists have focused on information regarding ethnicity and gender in combination with palaeopathological material to the genesis of diseases that face humans today. Scientists also use the age of the remains to approximate the number of old people, adults, youth, and children found in mass graves. The statistics can then be used to establish life expectancy and mortality rates of the people of that generation which are determinants of the health of a society.

Scientists can also reveal little details like blood cells, particles of chromosomes and organic molecules using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The structures are examined to establish the availability of pathogens which attack body structures to cause diseases. The information obtained can be genetically scrutinized to give more details about the spread of diseases such as malaria. The electronic scanning microscope is also used in determining whether bones found at a particular place belong to the same person. The scientists achieve this by scientifically surveying the structure of the bones including the connective fibers of ossein and collagen.

Ethics of studying human skeletons

People have different views concerning the study of human remains. Most arguments are based on religion and other beliefs. However, the research of archeology is beneficial not only to scientists but also to society. Archeology studies a set of human remains to get information concerning the background of the society from where the person comes from. The data obtained from a single body needs to be compared and contrasted with other remains. The information gathered is used to better the lives of the society by preventing the possible causes of death. The data can be used to detect the social status of individuals and the nutrition levels of the people. It is therefore essential to note that bone specialists can get information using a single body, but they would need more human remains to be accurate on their findings. Furthermore, the information obtained is beneficial to all individuals in the long-run.    

Psychological Disorders and Treatments

Psychological Disorders and Treatments

Psychological Disorders and Treatments

Psychological Disorders and Treatments

Schizophrenia is a brain disorder which affects how a person thinks, behaves and feels. Patients who have schizophrenia are mostly unable to differentiate their thoughts from reality. As a result, doctors refer to the disorder as a type of psychosis. Despite being a rare disorder, the symptoms of schizophrenia can be very disabling. Schizophrenia is a chronic psychological disorder whose symptoms are very disabling but whose cause is still unclear and it can be treated using both behavioral therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy.

Researchers group the symptoms of schizophrenia into positive and negative signs. The positive symptoms of schizophrenia are as a result of behavioral excesses, and they include delusions, hallucinations, bizarre behavior, and thought disorders (Weinberger & Harrison, 2010). Conversely, the negative symptoms are as a result of behavioral deficits, and they include severe withdrawal or extreme social isolation, lack of emotions or facial expressions, and apathy. Rarely, patients who have schizophrenia show catatonic behaviors like staying in an immobile state for some time with responding to any stimuli then suddenly shifting into a more agitated state. The symptoms of the disorder are very severe in the early stages of the disorder but after some time the individual experiences few or no symptoms.

The primary cause of schizophrenia is still unclear, but scientists believe it is a brain disorder that can be as a result of abnormal brain development. Abnormal brain development may lead to incoherent speech, irrational thinking, and faulty perceptions. Research indicates that factors like a change in the level of dopamine and serotonin may increase the risk of schizophrenia. Different combinations of the genetic material also make people more vulnerable

The Biblical worldview of schizophrenia can assist one to understand the condition better. In the Christian perspective, a person has schizophrenia as a punishment for breaking his creator’s commandments. Such a person is considered a sinner who according to the bible, is subjected to vanity because of his rebellion to God. To understand the disorder, a Christian counselor will try to discover whether the behavior of the patient stems from sinful behaviors or organic defects.

The best Professional treatment for patients of schizophrenia is the use of antipsychotics or neuroleptics. Anti-psychotics act effectively on several neurotransmitters in the brain (Nevid, 2014). Neuroleptics help to control the symptoms of the disorder such as delusions, hallucination, and bizarre behaviors. After the treatment, the patient should make medical follow-ups to determine the medicinal compliance and for adjustment of the therapeutic levels of medication.

Behavior therapy and Cognitive-behavioral therapy can be used to address different disorders. Behavioral therapy involves observing current behaviors of an individual and then focusing on particular behaviors for change. Behavior therapy is effective in treating conditions such as depression, people with developmental disabilities, enuresis, headache, agoraphobia or specific phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (Mason & Overdrive, 2011). Behavioral therapists apply operant principles of reinforcement to weaken undesirable features and strengthen desirable features (Castle & Buckley, 2011). Applied behavioral analysis (ABA) is the most common behavioral intervention with several specific approaches under it. One form of ABA is the Discrete Trial Training (DTT), which involves breaking the behaviors into parts to make an individual’s success with each element more achievable. The treatment is consistent with the biblical view where holding on to faith and practicing God’s love while following the laws results in warm, positive feedback. It involves changing how people think.

Conversely, cognitive-behavioral therapy is a form of treatment which involves both behavioral and cognitive therapy. Behavioral changes such as gradual exposure combine with cognitive techniques to help an individual identify and rectify false beliefs and false thoughts. Cognitive-behavior therapy is effective in treating panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, bulimia, and smoking cessation Cognitive-behavioral treatment is inconsistent with the biblical view since according to Christians believe no good can be redeemed from an individual if his or her foundation is evil while cognitive therapy finds aims at getting some good from the individual.

Schizophrenia is a severe psychological disorder. Individuals are recommended to advise any person who seems to have the symptoms to see a medical doctor immediately. Patients of schizophrenia usually have suicidal thoughts and therefore should get special care from the community.


Castle, D. J., & Buckley, P. F. (2011). Schizophrenia. Oxford: OUP Oxford.

Mason, S. E., & Overdrive Inc. (2011). Diagnosis Schizophrenia. Place of publication not identified: Columbia University Press.

Nevid, J. J. U. N. Y. (2014). Essentials of psychology – concepts and applications.

Weinberger, D. R., & Harrison, P. (2010). Schizophrenia. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Freedom and Responsibility at Netflix

Freedom and Responsibility at Netflix

Freedom and Responsibility at Netflix

Discussion Questions

3-14. Would you want to work at Netflix? Why or why not?

Yes, I would love to work at Netflix for several reasons. First, it is one of the biggest companies in the world, and it would be interesting to work with smart people. Secondly, the fact that it values individual freedom and thus cultivates responsible employees is highly ettractive because it makes employees grow their skills. Freedom enables an employee to try new ideas without restrictions. The company also gives no limit to financial and time resources, and thus, one has got the freedom and necessary resources to try out new ideas. The company further encourages teamwork among its employees, thus facilitating the process of sharing ideas which promote individual growth.

3-15. Does Netflix have characteristics of an innovative culture?

Netflix has characteristics of an innovative culture. First, the company hires smart people who are can discover new ideas. To assist the hired employs, the company gives them freedom and both financial resources, provided that the money is spent in the interest of the company, to explore new ideas. The company also allows them adequate time to try out new projects by offering unlimited vacations too. However, failure to be productive and offer new ideas to the company is punishable by dismissal or allowing an individual to “move on” as they put it.

3-16. Do you agree that Netflix’s culture contributes to the organization’s success? Why or why not?

It is a fact that Netflix’s culture contributes to the organization’s success. The company is known to come up with new products in the industry more frequently. This is because the company only rewards innovation, and thus, the only way an employee stays at Netflix is by being innovative and being able to provide new ideas consistently. This means all people working at Netflix are creative and productive and thus contributing to the organization’s success.

3-17. Could another company copy Netflix’s culture successfully?

Other companies can copy Netflix’s culture successfully. Any company is free to exercise freedom and responsibility among its employees. What matters is how they build the culture to fit their line of production. Furthermore, before copying the culture, a company has to consider their values keenly. For example, a company that values hard work and loyalty may find it challenging to copy Netflix’s culture.

Demand in the Coca-cola Company

Demand, Supply and Price Elasticity of Demand in the Coca-cola Company

Demand, Supply and Price Elasticity of Demand in the Coca-cola Company

Demand Condition

The Demand for a product is the willingness and ability of consumers to purchase the product over a period of time. The factors that influence the demand for a commodity are known as determinants of demand.  The law of demand states that an increase in price leads to a decrease in demand.

From the diagram, when the price is at P1 the quantity demanded is Q1 and when the prices move to P2 the quantity demanded reduces to Q2.

Some of the determinants of demand are as follows:

Income– When the income of individuals increases, their purchasing power or ability to purchase also increase (Landsburg, 1989). As a result, the need for goods and services also increase. For example, as a result of economic growth in the Philippines, there was an increase in the sales of coca cola in the region since people’s income had increased.

Price of related goods– The costs of other products which are related to specific commodity also affect the demand for that commodity depending on whether the other commodity is a substitute or a compliment.  In the coca cola company, an increase in the prices of alternatives like fresh fruit juice increases the demand for the beverage since many people turn to coca cola while a decrease in cost of substitutes impacts negatively on the sales of the company. Conversely, an increase in prices of complementary goods results in a decline in demand for a particular commodity.

Tastes– A positive change in people’s feelings towards a commodity increases the demand for the product while a negative change results in a decrease in demand.  In the world today, most people avoid taking calories and consequently the coca-cola company has responded by making products with a reduced amount of calories (The Coca-Cola Company 2018).

Population and Demographics– An increase in population results in an increase in demand. For example, the increase in population in India resulted in more demand for the coca cola products. As a result, the company re-entered the Indian economy in 2011 and has invested over two billion dollars in the country (The Coca-Cola Company 2018).

Expected Future Prices– When individuals anticipate a change in the prices of a commodity, they are likely to purchase more of it today. During festive seasons, most retailers expect the prices of beverages to increase; hence many people buy coca cola products in bulk when the holiday seasons come closer.

Revenues of the Coca-cola company from 2014 to 2018

Year    2014    2015    2016    2017    2018

Sales (in million U.S. dollars     45998    44294    41863    35410    31856

The steady reduction in sales can be as a result of a decrease in individuals’ income, changes in tastes and preferences, a fall in the prices of substitute goods and an increase in the prices of complementary products.

Supply Conditions

Supply refers to the volume of goods or services that the producers able and willing to offer to the market over a specific period. According to the law of supply, an increase in price leads to a an increase in supply while a fall in prices results to fall in volume of products supplied (Landsburg, 1989).

From the diagram below, at P1 the quantities supplied are Q1 and at P2 the quantities supplied are Q2

 Some of the determinants of supply include:

Cost of inputs– an increase in the price of inputs of production of a particular commodity lowers the profits of a company and thus discourages producers from supplying the product.

Prices of substitutes– when prices of complementary goods increase many suppliers tend to supply more of the commodity and hence an increase in the supply of other products that are consumed along with the commodity. In the coca cola company, the most common complementary goods are the refrigerators. A decrease in the prices of the drink results in a reduction to the quantities supplied and hence fewer refrigerators would be supplied too.

The number of firms in the market

an increase in the number of sellers in the market results in an increase in the supply of a commodity.

Expected future prices– When producers expect a decrease in costs of a commodity, they will supply more today while when they expect an increase, they tend to hold on to their products and sell them in the future when the prices are high.

Technological improvement– Advancement in technology reduces the cost of production and maximizes profits and thus stimulates higher supply.

Price Elasticity of Demand

The elasticity of demand of a product refers to the effect of changes in prices to the quantities sold out.

Price Elasticity= (% Change in quantity demanded)/(% Change in Price)

When the elasticity of demand is greater than one, the graph appears as follows.

When the price of coca cola is P the quantity demanded is Q, and then when the price increases to P’ the quantity demanded reduces to Q’. We can, therefore, conclude that coca cola is elastic with an elasticity of demand which is higher than one.

Some of the factors that affect the price elasticity of demand for coca cola include:

Availability of substitutes– the availability of alternatives such as Pepsi and Miranda in the market makes the demand for coca cola elastic. A slight increase in the price of coca cola will make a consumer prefer a cheaper substitute. Therefore, it is recommendable that the coca- cola company avoids any increments in price at all costs especially in markets with low purchasing power.

Passage of Time– The demand for coca cola is subject to the time factor. A long run elasticity of demand is elastic because the peoples’ tastes and preferences may change over the long period while in the case of a short run the elasticity is inelastic.

Luxury or necessity– the elasticity of demand for needs is inelastic since individuals will continue to buy the goods regardless of their price changes whereas elasticity of demand for luxuries is elastic since a customer may choose to wait and buy it later or not buy it at all.

Definition of the market– the elasticity of demand is inelastic for a market with a higher purchasing power and elastic for a market with low income hence low purchasing power.

The share of the budget– expensive goods have elastic demand while products which are not costly have inelastic demand.

If a rise in the price of a commodity leads to a rise in total revenue, then the price elasticity of that product is inelastic, and the producer would tend to supply more of it. However, if the price elasticity is elastic, an increase in the price of the commodity would result in reduced sales and thus decreasing revenues. In such a scenario, the company may choose not to increase the costs of its products due to the fear of a fall in revenue.


Landsburg, S. E. (1989). Price theory and applications. Chicago: Dryden Press.

The Coca-Cola Company (2018). Who we are: The Coca-Cola Company. Retrieved from

Significant causes of poverty

             Significant causes of poverty

Significant causes of poverty

  1. Does the writer introduce the general topic at hand in a way that helps you determine which prompt is being used (1: the most significant causes of poverty, or 2: the best solution or solutions to poverty in the US)? Paraphrase the writer’s information in your own words and note which prompt is being answered. What do you think of the background included? Is it a clear introduction to the overall essay topic? Why or why not?
    The writer’s introduction does not state clearly the general topic at hand. The writer confirms that experts believe that the causes of poverty in the United States include income disparity, stagnant wages, lack of affordable housing, and the decreasing rates of permanent employees. She acknowledges the causes of poverty and is hopeful that the country can still be redeemed from abject poverty. In the beginning, the writer discusses the causes of poverty in the United States then later brings in the idea of solutions to poverty. The thesis of the article mentions both causes and solutions, and the title does not explain either prompt. The thesis statement should focus on significant causes of poverty alone since solutions to poverty is a whole topic on its own
  2. Does the introduction lead into a clear main claim (thesis) about the topic? The claim might include reasons also, or the reasons may be stated as sub-claims in the topic sentences for the body paragraphs. Write down the writer’s main claim in your own words. Does it clearly tell you what the writer will argue in the essay? Is it clear which prompt is being answered based on this claim/thesis? Let the writer know what you think still needs work.
    The writer mentions several causes of poverty in the United States in her first paragraph and goes ahead to use some of the stated factors like the topic sentences in the body paragraphs. .This prepares the reader on what to expect in the body paragraphs. For example, the issue of stagnant wage rate appears in her introduction and also forms the topic sentence of the third paragraph. I would recommend that the writer mentions in the introductory paragraph all the factors that she intends to discuss in the body paragraphs.
    List the points in each topic sentence. Do the topic sentences all clearly relate to an idea suggested by the thesis (that is, do they provide a reason why the claim made by the writer is valid)? If not, which topic sentences need to change? What about them needs to change? Be specific.

• Poor economy
• Unemployment and low wage rate
• Crime
• Solutions to poverty include well-paying jobs
• Support pay equity
• Affordable healthcare
The thesis statement indicated a discussion of both causes and solutions of poverty in the United States, and the topic sentences contain both of them and also effects. It is evident that the writer discusses both topic one and topic two concurrently. I believe the writer should choose to either discuss the causes of domestic poverty, which is essay one or essay two which involves the solutions to poverty. Alternatively, the writer can write about another topic related to poverty in the United States other than causes and solutions to poverty. The writer should also refrain from discussing the effects of poverty, for example, malnutrition. Does the writer give you at least two examples for each paragraph? (Two examples aren’t necessary for each paragraph, but they would be good.) Are the examples introduced and cited properly? Do they make sense within the context of the paragraph? Choose the best example and explain why it’s effective.

  1. The writer offers good examples which are relevant to the context of the paragraphs, and she introduces and cites her examples correctly. The third paragraph is an excellent example as it states, “Another issue poverty is caused by is unemployment or low-wage employment. Working long hours or earning multiple minimum wage jobs results in people unable to afford health care, housing, and many basic living needs. Some might say it’s the people that lack personal responsibility that wants to stay home and be lazy rather than getting a job is the bigger problem of unemployment, but that is not the case. This transitions into another cause of poverty, and that is inequality. The income disparity is a problem because it is very unbalanced. People are making more money than they can handle, and then there are people who aren’t making enough money to support their family or even themselves. “By 2015, America’s top 10 percent already averaged more than nine times as much income as the bottom 90 percent. And Americans in the top 1 percent averaged over 40 times more income than the bottom 90 percent.” (Amadeo, 2019). The disparity is so severe that the workers making minimum wage can’t even afford health insurance and aren’t provided sick days from employers. Which results in poverty having many effects on people in our society,“ The topic sentence introduces the reader to the subject to be discussed throughout the paragraph. She also provides examples such as long-working hours to provide basic needs and the issue of income disparity in the job market. She further provides an in-text citation to support the idea of uneven income disparity in the US.
  2. Do you think the writer should add more to or take away from the examples used, like more context, more paraphrasing, or less direct quoting? Why or why not?
  3. I think the examples offered under the different paragraphs are very specific and relevant to the paragraphs. All illustrations provided by the writer demonstrate the issue under discussion. Even though some topics are about causes while some are about solutions and effects, I believe the examples provided are very relevant to the subject of specific paragraphs. The writer should only pick on a single topic and focus her article on it. For instance, if she chooses the first topic, which is about domestic poverty, then all the paragraphs should focus on the significant causes of poverty in the US. Under the topic, she should only pick on one or two causes and give a detailed illustration of the impact of the chosen factor on the rates of poverty in the United States.
  4. Does the writer clearly differing points of view or underlying values/warrants (sub-claims/topic sentences) by addressing counterarguments? What warrants or counterarguments does the writer include, and where do they occur in the essay? Do you think they are explained fully and effectively, or are they explained shallowly and ineffectively? Explain.
  5. The writer provides counterarguments in some of the ideas she raises. For instance, in the third paragraph, she suggests that there is a misconception that it is lazy people in the society who prefer idling instead of getting a job is the major cause of poverty in the United States, which the writer believes is not true. On the contrary, she believes that the lack of employment opportunities or availability of poorly-paying jobs are the causes of poverty in the country. The writer mentions the argument but does not explain it in details.
  6. What’s done really well in this essay, and what should be changed.
    The formatting of the paper is done correctly. Every paragraph discusses related ideas which are guided by a topic sentence. Proper formatting makes the writing clear and easy to read and understand since there is a clear transition of ideas. The format helps the reader to transition smoothly from the causes to the effects and then to the solutions. However, the writer ought to pick on only one area and discuss it in details. The writer should follow the Essay three instructions for better guidelines. All in all, the paper lacked significant typing errors or misreading.