Applications of Second Screen Synchronization

Applications of Second Screen Synchronization

Literature Review

This chapter examines recent literature related to second screen synchronization mostly on challenges and ways to overcome those challenges. According to Spilo et al. (2015), 84% of smartphones users and 86% of tablet owners in the United States in the second quarter of 2012 indicated that they utilized second screen while watching television at least once in a month. However, the study also established that 41% and 39% of tablet and smartphones owners respectively multitask at least once in 24 hours.

Howson et al. (2011) note that most of digital network strategists have realized an opportunity in the people’s attachment to a second screen while watching TV, whereby currently, some of the largest cable programmers and broadcast networks are investigating ways to offer more information on the second screen. However, Aditya (2010), postulates that the technology behind second screen possesses numerous technical challenges, which must be addressed.

Some of the challenges involved in second screen synchronization include embedding and detecting of marks in real time. Since second screen synchronization involves sending of some of the content over the internet, Non Crogh & Ebay (2016) insist that appropriate marking is required to keep off the ever-popular cyber-attacks.

 According to Ton et al. (2011), technology such as visual encrypting and water marking are essential in ensuring that second screen synchronization works as expected. However, Sandoval et al. (2013) note that much of the previous studies on the topic has not covered information related to digital content marking for second screen synchronization. Therefore, the technology still is at its infancy and faces many challenges in its current form.

Overview of Second Screen Synchronization

 According to Amir & Shahrokh (2012), second screen is utilizing a computing device such as a tablet, laptop, smartphone to offer an improved experience for another device’s content; for instance a TV. Specifically, the technique refers to the utilization of a device to offer interactive aspects when content is being broadcasted; for instance, a program on TV and postings on social media networks such as twitter and Facebook related to the content on television. Using a second screen enhances social TV and generation of conversation on the online platforms around the content being broadcasted.

Perumanam (2012) indicates that second screen television relies on strong synchronization of every device in participation for better management of interactive visualization of the additional content. According to Sandoval et al. (2012), several techniques of device synchronization exists which include time code synch, closed captions, direct link, manual synch, visual, and audio synch. However, Chen & Zhou (2011) indicates that most of these approaches possess numerous challenges in terms of synchronization.

Nature of Video Based Encoding

According to Howson et al. (2011), video encoding technology is necessary to enhance second screen synchronization. Video encoding also known as transcoding is a technique of converting digital video files to a format different from the original ‘source’. Video encoding is critical because different browsers and devices support varying video formats; therefore, if the source content is not compatible with the destination device format, conversion is required to enhance viewability. Different video formats, with particular variables including containers such as (.FLOV, .OGG, .MOV, WebM and .WMV), Codecs (ProRes, VP6, and H264), and bitrates, currently exists. In the context of second screen synchronization, video encoding is necessary because the TV and the second screen utilize different types of formats, with specific requirements.

However, Howson et al. (2011), note that the existing video encoding technologies are not as robust as the audio ones. Therefore, Spilo et al. (2015) argue that various challenges exists in the video encryption technology whereby incidences such as cyber-attacks are a real threat to second screen synchronization, whereby attackers can hijack the process and introduce malicious information to the second screen. Extracting the watermarks from the content in real time is also an immense issue to the second screen synchronization because users require information in real-time.

Despite the challenges existing in the video encoding, several studies have been conducted regarding the issues. For instance, some strategies have been proposed to address the issues of real time mark extracting. In addition, mechanisms to improve the robustness of encryption to enhance security have been developed and others proposed. Therefore, as Manoj & Arnold (2013) argue, the state of second screen synchronization is expected to become better in future, whereby, the experience of users is expected to be highly improved through robust security, visualization, and improved quality of information. According to Howson et al. (2011), increased applications, with elegant technologic capabilities regarding second screen synchronization, presence is also expected in the market.

Challenges of Second Screen Synchronization

According to Sandoval et al. (2013), second screen involves sharing of content over two displays that are spatially disconnected; therefore, introducing a particular category of MDE (multi display environment) with a bigger screen; for instance, a television or a computer, and the second smaller screen especially a smartphone or a tablet. Since devices possess different intrinsic characteristics, and second screen include the requirement to switch attention between the involved screens, multi display environments include unique issues to the interactive interfaces design.

Chen & Zhou (2011) argue that immense studies have been conducted regarding human computer interaction and the cooperative work supported by computers to improve the understanding of the design characteristics. However, Sandoval et al. (2012) note that there is some previous research concerning the manner in which data visualization functions in MDEs. One of the previous work on data visualization in multi display environments is WeSpace, which involved users sharing visual content on their laptops from a larger screen. Perumanam (2012) utilized a similar approach while researching on multi display environments in the automotive sector. Additionally Zhou  & Zeng (2012) developed an idea for managing smart view for smart rooms, whereby the technique puts together different system views taking into account the position of the users, semantics, and direction of views to be displayed. Sandoval et al. (2013) also suggested a middleware framework for the implementation of the visualization application in multi display environments with changing user directions. Although some of the previous studies have tried to tackle issues related to second screen visualization, more research is still required to ensure that the technology improves user experience. In addition, most of the issues regarding second screen synchronization still exist even when the demand is constantly high.

As indicated earlier, some of the existing approaches to solve synchronization issues in the second screen technologies possess various problems that make them undesirable. For instance manual synchronization, which involves embedding a visible or audible trigger into the content that is broadcasted, whereby the user is required to press a button or select a specific position on the timeline to synch. According to Howson et al. (2011), although the approach is easy; it cannot uphold synchronization after pausing streaming.

Use of time codes or directly linking devices via the use of web server or a WIFI, are alternatives to the manual synch. However, Sandoval et al. (2012) explains that the approaches require special hardware; hence, limiting wide applicability in varying scenarios. Closed caption is another alternative; however, much of the content does not offer them. Visual sync triggers is another approach to synchronization whereby natural features as well as QR codes are used, but the technique is computationally expensive and is highly dependent on the situation of lighting. With all these types of approaches possessing numerous challenges, Spilo et al. (2015) argue that alternative methods for synchronization are required to address the issues identified above. Additionally, none of the above techniques above adequately addresses the issues of video-based marking technology, whereby a marker, which not supposed to intrude on the content, is embedded on the content. Removing the marker from the content in a changing range and resolution of the captured content is another source of challenge regarding synchronization.

Strategies to Overcome Second Screen TV Synchronization Challenges

According to Chen & Zhou (2011) there exist several ways of addressing numerous issues related to video encoding which include video watermarking by use of techniques such as visual cryptography and data hiding techniques or a combination of both.  

For instance, Sandoval et al. (2012) proposed an algorithm of watermarking for video sequences, which was based on the idea of visual cryptography and was conducted on a spatial domain. In this technique, owners’ shares mark including a visible logo, are the embedded watermarks, which appear as pseudo-spread spectrum sequences. The algorithm for the detection of the watermark is based on the knowledge that stacking which contains the logo’s corresponding shares, achieves an improved correlation with that logo, in comparison to stacking of frames with the logo’s shares that are not relevant. The approach, according to Howson et al. (2011) is a perfect solution to geometric distortions and video processing strategies that are non-pressing. The idea is also a countermeasure to critical challenges to video watermarking such as collusion attack.

According to Sandoval et al. (2013), the method can also be used in marking video content for second synchronization since it provides watermarks that are not visible to the user and are easily decrypted. Chen & Zhou (2011) argue that the approach enhances second screen synchronization due to applicability in a wide range of content and lighting. Perumanam (2012) also developed a watermarking technology to monitor content broadcast monitoring.

Acknowledging the challenges of broadcast monitoring, the scholar presented several technical options. The uniqueness of the technique lies in the manner it exploits shift invariance to acquire an improved payload and measure of reliability for every detection. The technology has been applied on various platforms indicating real time detection and embedding feasibility. In addition, VIVA tests revealed high performance of the technology in terms of robustness and visibility. Therefore, the method is also a perfect technology for second screen synchronization due to the ability of the solution to improve visibility and robustness, which are major source of concern in 2nd screen synchronization. In addition, using the technique, embedding, and detection of watermarks can be done in real time, which is a primary demand of second screen synchronization. However, Howson et al. (2011) note that the technology requires some future improvement regarding rotation and scaling strengths.

Perumanam (2012) also, to improve the robustness of the content for the second screen, proposed a sophisticated approach to ensure that the watermarks are uncorrupted in case of attacks. The technique proposed by the scholar addressed retrieval of data without any loss while upholding high data security.

The primary goal of the scholar was to come up with a video watermarking technique that was invisible and adequately robust to carryout increased payload by applying a secure watermark distributed throughout the entire video file. The strategy also utilizes a layered strategy that enhances correct extract of the watermark once it has been embedded within a video; hence, improving the system security.

The proposed solution was supposed to be capable of performing reversible data hiding. According to the scholar, the solution to the existing video encrypting issues is a hybrid model involving wavelet, histogram, and cryptography approaches. The hybrid solution was expected to improve the robustness of the copyright image, watermark data, and the payload as well. The proposed watermarking mechanism was also expected to enhance original information extraction after several distortion attacks.

From the literature examined above, it is apparent second screen synchronization is an important aspect of the modern television watching. Therefore, TV networks are required to ensure that they offer the necessary applications to support a second screen on most or all of their programs. However, currently, there exists a challenge in video encoding whereby issues such as those regarding security exist. In addition, embedding and detecting watermarks in real time is also a problem of second screen encryption.

In that regard, several methods have been tried and tested and others proposed to offer a solution to the issues of second screen encryption. Techniques such as video cryptography and the histogram approach have been proposed to monitor, and improve the security of content sent on the online platforms as well as enhance embedding and extracting of the watermarks in real time. Some of the existing studies have also revealed methods of improving visualization of the content on the second screen, which is an immense problem in the second screen synchronization.

References

Howson, C., Gautier, E., Gilberton, P., Laurent, A. and Legallais, Y., 2011, September. Second screen TV synchronization. In Consumer Electronics-Berlin (ICCE-Berlin), 2011 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 361-365). IEEE.

Sandoval, F. and Kakatsakis, G., Cable Television Laboratories, Inc., 2013. Synchronization of 2nd screen applications. U.S. Patent 8,516,528.

Montagud, M., Boronat, F., Stokking, H. and van Brandenburg, R., 2012. Inter-destination multimedia synchronization: schemes, use cases and standardization. Multimedia systems18(6), pp.459-482.

Spilo, M. and Daub, J., Netgear, Inc., 2015. Method and system for synchronization of digital media playback. U.S. Patent 8,973,063.

Perumanam, R., Cahnbley, J. and Mandrekar, I., Thomson Licensing, 2012. Method and apparatus for multimedia stream synchronization. U.S. Patent Application 13/732,023.

Aditya, V, Rajarathnam, N, Amitabha, 2010. Watermarking video content using visual cryptography and scene averaged image. IEEE International Conference. Multimedia and Expo

Amir, H, Shahrokh, G, 2012. A Novel Video Watermarking Method Using Visual Crygraphy. Sharif University of Technology

Manoj, K, Arnold, H, 2013. Robust Digital Video Watermarking using Reversible Data Hiding and Visual Cryptography. Network Security and Digital Forensics Group

Ton, K, Geert, D, Jaap, H, Maurice M, 2011. A Video Watermarking System for Broadcast Monitoring. Philips Research

Chen, X & Zhou, P 2011, “Video watermarking algorithm based on moving object detection”, in , Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 258-259.

Zhou, Y & Zeng, F 2012, “Video watermarking algorithm based on compressive sensing”, in , Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1508-1511.

Proposal: Internet of Things Search Engine

Proposal: Internet of Things Search Engine

Introduction

With increasing number of smart city being implemented and a growing number of IoT devices being connected to the internet, search solutions are urgently required for finding and extracting IoT sources. According to Guinard et al (2010), there has been massive improvements of search engines since when they used to search documents, but still do not have the connectivity between physical, social, and cyber data, which are highly desirable in the IoT age.

However, the existing search engines are inadequate to serve the growing demands of IoT data retrieval, where by scalable and effective indexing strategies including smart devices services and data discovery integration are required.

Therefore, IoT require unique search engines with specific features to address the current shortcomings of the existing such search engines. However, much is not known about IoT search engines and their features have not been fully defined. Additionally, IoT search engines possess challenges of implementation, whereby the current means of implementation possess numerous drawbacks. Therefore, extensive research on the desired features and implementation techniques is required to improve the efficiency of search engines for IoT.  

Research Statement

The conventional web search engines have failed to effectively support IoT, and the existing Specialized Search Engines do not support effective searches for the technology; therefore, additional means of improving the existing tools are required to increase the adoption Internet of Things. User requirements such as speed, security, and efficiency require substantial improvements.  

Research Objective

The core objective of the study is to establish the weaknesses of the existing IoT search engines and find strategies of implementing new tools, including user requirements. The study wishes to identify means of improving IoT searches by identifying the current user expected speed and the available technology to support the feature. Security, also being critical to the adoption of informational technology will be considered to find the current level of security and user expectations on the same. The study will also focus on efficiency of IoT search engines to identify the most preferable method of making search engines for IoTs effective. Finally, the study will focus on the existing technological limitations on search engines implementation and find ways of coming up with better implementation strategies.

Research Questions

  1. What are the major weaknesses of the current Search engines for IoT?
  2. What are the effects of the current IoT searches’ Speed and the contribution of Search Engines to the matter?
  3. How can the level of IoT searches’ Security be improved to reduce vulnerabilities of cyber-attacks and hence increase adoption of the technology?
  4. How can the implementation method affect the performance of an IoT search engine?

Rationale and Context

According to McCandles et al (2010), much is to be realized by using physical data, particularly data from the IoT with social and cyber data by enhancing the abilities of diverse data conversion into abstractions essential to human experiences and making of decisions. Joachims, (2012) argues that IoT search, specifically for devices and machines to interact hence exchange and aggregate critical essential information on behalf of human will be useful enhancer. Gat et al, (2011) postulate that searches between machines, which are generated automatically depending on the location of such machines is expected to rise. For instance, autonomous cars will require to collect data about weather and traffic without involving human beings.

According to Svigals, (2016) IoT searches will require stringent measure on security, whereby some of the requirements include the ability to access sensory and numerical, and providing secure means of data transfer without exposing it to attackers or hackers. Ostermaier, (2010) indicates that applications relying on public data are required to be highly accessible for them to be available to a wide range of services and applications. However, Joachims, (2012) insists that high accessibility will expose the devices and machines to hackers and attackers. Hence, highly efficient mechanisms will be required to enhance crawling, indexing, finding machines and devices without exposing them to hackers.

According to Guinard et al, (2010) finding efficient strategies to combine high accessibility and security require input of ideas and concerns from various stakeholders in the IoT industry. Previous research has not captured consideration such as security in establishing the best means to address such issues. However, increasing the level of accessibility in the current web search engines and considering the sky rocketing levels of cyber-attacks, is exponentially increasing security risks. Since, nobody would wish to undergo the experience of a cyber-attack; users are adopting IoT with a lot of caution. Therefore, efficient and effective mechanisms of making IoT safer have to be developed to increase the rate of the technology adoption. Although various scholars,such as Svigal, (2016) feels that technology such as IoT have not grown enough in terms of adoption and complexities to demand specialized search engines, the current web search engines cannot guarantee the necessary security to IoT with the level of accessibility that the technology demands. McCandless et al, (2010) argue that such scholars are being blind to the fact that the rate of the technology would be higher if there existed strategies of making IoT safer.

Weber, (2010) also insist that, other features of IoTs such as efficiency have not been explored into much depth to establish the expectations of the users. Svigal, (2016) postulates that the current web search engines are designed with much emphasis on data and not machines and devices. Hence, the web search engines are in adequate for the IoT technology which relies on the machine-data combination. Joachims, (2012) argues that due to the design of these engines, IoT searches are usually in efficient and hence turning off potential users of the technology.

However, Guinard et al, (2010) insist that the problem of designs does not lie on the web search engines designers but on the IoT machines and devices designers. Gan et al, (2011) indicate that, it is a responsibility of these designers to come up with ways of creating devices, which can function efficiently on the web search engines. McCandles et al, (2010) on the other hand, insist that there is no way IoTs will work on engines that data oriented only. Svigal, (2016) explains that for the IoT to function as expected, the device, or the machine is a critical components. For instance, Creswell, (2011) argues that for autonomous vehicles, failures in identifying relevant correct devices or machines will lead to wrong decisions, which can have devastating consequences such as accidents.

According to Ostermaier, (2010 speed is also critical in the functionality of IoTs whereby, information should be accessed and processed at the correct time. For instance, for an individual with a waking up system whereby upon the ringing of the alarm, the tea brewer makes coffee after fifteen minutes, significant delay of the signal from the alarm to tea brewer will render the system useless. For example, if the tea brewer receives the signal after five hours, it will make coffee at time when the owner will have left the house along time. However, Guinard et al, (2010) argue that the incurrent internet speed is considerably high and if IoT deserve a higher speed, focus should be put on increasing the current internet speed not changing the browser. Ostermaier, (2010)  insist that, focusing on the entire internet just for the sake of improving the speed of device communication is making too much efforts, because improving the current IoT search engines is the most efficient approach to the issue. There extremely large volumes of data and communication of devices is expected to grow in reaps and bounds therefore trying to merge the two creates a highly complex system whose issues cannot be resolved by simple approaches such as improving the speed of the internet.   

Search engines implementation is another area that Svigals, (2016) argues that it is lagging behind, hence a core drawback for the technology. Gan et al, (2011) insists that IoT search engines are implementing them using the conventional strategies that used in data oriented engines. Svgals, (2016) argue that the conventional ways for the data oriented search engines cannot function in the IoT because the technology requires a combination of both data and machines and devices. Hence, Joachims, (2012) concludes that research is required to come with the best ways of IoT search engines implementation.

However, Guinard et al, (2010) indicate that most of the information about IoT is based on speculation and nothing much regarding practical research has been done. Weber, (2010) insists that most of the arguments concerning IoT and search engines are expectations, which should be verified using robust research methods. In this case, the expectations about the impact of features such as speed, efficiency, and better ways of implementing IOT search engines will be identified.

Summary

Therefore, with the considerable increase in the adoption of IoT and acknowledging that the current web search engines are playing a hindering role in the adoption, then immense research is required on the topic. Most of the issues regarding the topic of IoTs have been superficiary handled. In-depth studies are required in the areas of IoT security whereby ways of coming with engines that provide the necessary accessibility while improving the much desired security from cyber-attacks are required. Features such as efficiency are also playing a critical role in the adoption and use of technology whereby, at that rate the current search engines are not efficient enough to support the necessary demands.

Features such as speed are also turning out to be contentious whereby some people feel that speed of resources access should not be used to justify development of IoT search engines. People with such kind of thinking argue that the speed of the internet should be increased instead. However, scholars pro the introduction of the new search engines indicate that IoT demand are very complicated to solve with simples approaches such as increasing internet speed. Implementation is also another issue that is associated with the increasing demand for new IoT search engines, where developers are used conventional data oriented to implement the technology. Hence, research is required to identify the core features and implementation mechanisms necessary for effective implementation of search engines.

Proposed Research Methodology

Internet of things as a new phenomenon in the market has numerous unanswered questions such as how to implement effective search engines for the technology. Regarding the search engines questions also arises such as the manner in which users will identify specific devices in the IOT. Therefore, extensive research is required mostly in the areas of search engines for IOT considering users requirements such as ease of use, efficiency, among others. Since the technology is new, there exist specific methodologies to conduct this kind of research for meaningful results to be identified. After a keen evaluation of the existing research methodologies and the nature of the study, the following research method, sampling mechanisms, and data collection and analysis techniques are proposed as the best to conduct the research.

Research Method

Establishing a single method to conduct investigations about search engines for Internet Of Things is not possible due to the limited amount data available and the limited knowledge among users regarding the topic. Therefore, a combination of the quantitative and qualitative methods of research will be utilized to conduct the study, hence, a mixed strategy of collecting data. According to Creswell, (2011) mixed method of conducting research leads to impressing amounts of primary data for quantitative and qualitative research, therefore enhancing a broad perspective of the topic under investigation. Moreover, the strategy is efficient in reducing potential biasness due to enabling validation of qualitative data that is subjective-prone through the findings of the qualitative section of the study. Secondary data from the qualitative bit of the research also assists in shaping, guiding, and supplementing the quantitative part.

Apparently, the benefits associated with the approach, makes it the most suitable for the study. However, the method possess some few drawbacks such as immense amounts of resources like, time, money, and efforts, required to carry out a study using the approach. The method can be confusing due to the large volumes of data the approach generates.

Sampling

The study will be conducted using three sets of primary data sources, which are, Search engines for Internet Of Things developers, Internet Of Things users, and the manufacturers of IOT devices. Search engines developers are expected to provide information about the contributions to the current state of things and the existing challenges to coming up with an effective IOT search engines among other things. Manufacturers of IOT and users devices are expected to provide information about the current search engines and what they expect from new ones.

 In addition to the above data sources, secondary data will be collected from journals reviews, manufacturers’ websites, observation, videos, and magazines, among others. Since the subject under investigation is new and hence a problem of finding participants anticipated, data samples will be created according to the availability of participants.

However, the targeted samples for quantitative part of the study include 20 users of IOT, and 10 employees from manufacturers of IOT related devices. In addition, ten employees from Search Engines for IOT developers along with the secondary sources will be used to conduct the qualitative section of the study. Coming up with the best samples for the study will be done using a random sampling technique which is expected to assist in the creation of samples with at least 80% of rate of response.  According to Kothari, (2012) random sampling possesses a weakness of appropriately large number representation. However, the technique eliminates systemic bias by giving all the qualified participants an equal chance of representations.

Data Collection and Analysis

A systemic review of secondary sources such as peer reviewed journals, books, magazines, and corporate reports will be conducted. The sources will searched from online databases such as EBSCO host, JSTOR, ProQuest, and Google Scholar and physical libraries such as the university library. Key Words such as IOT, ‘Internet Of Things’, ’Search Engines for IOTs’, IOT challenges’ and ‘Effective Search Engines for IOTs’ will be used to search for relevant materials from the online databases.

Literature reviews are preferred in this research due to their ability to enhance convenient study work without the need to conduct empirical research. Literature review also assists in increasing knowledge or familiarity with the topic of study. Therefore, since IOT is a new phenomenon literature review will assist in providing information on what other scholars have found regarding the topic especially on search engines. The tool will save a great deal of time because the study will not have to verify everything about the IOTs.

Apart from literature reviews, Interviews and questionnaires will used as the tools for collecting primary data for both qualitative and quantitative sections of the study. Specifically, interviews will used to data for quantitative part of the research while closed ended questionnaire will be used to collect data for qualitative analysis. Analysis of qualitative data will be conducted by categorization into evident themes or groups whereby inferences will be made. Analysis of quantitative data will be performed using statistical tools such as SPSS or MS excel applications.

 Ethical Considerations

Due to the involvement of human beings in the study, the following ethical considerations need to be addressed in the course of the study (Kothari, 2012).

Consent– Customized letters will be sent to the targeted companies in advance with an objective of soliciting cooperation from the relevant management with regard to conduction of the research. In addition, study participants will be required to consent in a formal manner to participate in the research after understanding its objectives, interviews and questionnaires, and measures implemented to ensure personal data confidentiality.

Withdrawing from Research-participants will be assured to withdraw any time they want to without the requirement of formerly informing anybody.

Protecting Data– Digital data will be strongly encrypted while documents in print form will be stored safely and locked.  

Potential Value of Research

Internet of Thing being a new phenomenon much information is required to shape the future of the technology. For instance, as the study will help in identifying the nature of search engines that users would desire to see implemented in the Internet Of Things. The study will also act as a preliminary for many to come regarding search engines for Internet of Things hence can lead to development of sophisticated features of the tools currently and in future.

The core objectives being to establish the features and mechanisms of implementing effective internet of things, the study will be a very huge boost in improving effetiveness of IoT search engines and the technology in general. User desired features such as speed, efficiency, and security of IoT will be identified and efficient methods of implementing the features will also be revealed by the study. With the research, users can expect robust Internet of things with extremely improved feature hence an improved adoption of the technology.

References

Creswell, J & Clark, V (2011).  Designing and conducting mixed methods research. SAGE Publications

Kothari, CR (2012). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Age International.

Weber, R. H. (2010). Internet of Things–New security and privacy challenges. Computer law & security review26(1), 23-30.

Weber, H. (2010). Internet of Things–New security and privacy challenges. Computer law & security review 26, 23-30.

Svigals, J. (2016). U.S. Patent No. 9,432,378. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Gan, G., Lu, Z., & Jiang, J. (2011, August). Internet of things security analysis. In Internet Technology and Applications (iTAP), 2011 International Conference on (pp. 1-4). IEEE.

Ostermaier, B., Römer, K., Mattern, F., Fahrmair, M., & Kellerer, W. (2010, November). A real-time search engine for the web of things. In Internet of Things (IOT), 2010 (pp. 1-8). IEEE.

Joachims, T. (2012, July). Optimizing search engines using clickthrough data. In Proceedings of the eighth ACM SIGKDD international conference on Knowledge discovery and data mining (pp. 133-142). ACM.

McCandless, M., Hatcher, E., & Gospodnetic, O. (2010). Lucene in Action: Covers Apache Lucene 3.0. Manning Publications Co..

Guinard, D., Trifa, V., Karnouskos, S., Spiess, P., & Savio, D. (2010). Interacting with the soa-based internet of things: Discovery, query, selection, and on-demand provisioning of web services. IEEE transactions on Services Computing3(3), 223-235.

Appendix 1: Research Plan

Gender as a Form of Social Hierarchy

Gender as a Form of Social Hierarchy

      In most social settings, the males are regarded as more intelligent and a natural leader, as well as stronger than their female counterparts that are confined to child bearing and house-keeping. Notably, sex is a biological idea but gender refers to the social constructs that differentiates the roles of men and women in the society based on the concept. Doob (2015), maintains that gender is a ‘social costume or straitjacket’ in which males and females dance to their tunes of inequality. Nonetheless, sociological studies concerning domination have revealed that the servitude of women by men is deeply rooted than any other category of subordination. Gender is used to create a wide and deep division between men and women by assigning them varying duties from early childhood to adulthood and is passed from one generation to another because it is assumed as the natural order of humanity. Thus, the family, which is the most essential environment of primary socialization, is one of the most fundamental determinant of gender attributed social hierarchy, because it instills almost permanent norms and values in children or the future adults.

          The family provides a crucial environment for an individual to learn values and norms, as well as social capacities that enhance participation in the society. In this regard, parents and other adults in the family either directly or indirectly influence the nature of social division by specifying the duties assigned to children based on their gender, as well as the upbringing perspective (Doob, 2015). For instance, the blue, most often referred to as a cold color, is chosen for the boy child, and pink that is considered as a warm color, for girls. In this regard, boys are focused on becoming active, strong, dominating, and leaders, while girls are taught to be well-mannered, caring, and looked after, in future. Thus, boys grow up to assume roles that offer them more life chances than women, who end up on depending on men for income, as well as numerous factors that undermine their independence.  

      Gender is one of the sources of social stratifications, which is characterized by a wide division between males and females and passed from a generation to another through the family. Notably, the primary socialization process remains firmly rooted in conscience because it is highly charged with emotions such that girls and boys identify with the realities that influence the aspects and contents of their values, norms, and lives. Therefore, the family forms the most crucial environment of the children’s primary socialization hence facilitates passage of long lasting social hierarchy characteristics that put men above women.   

References

Doob, C. B. (2015). Social inequality and social stratification in US society. Routledge.

Gun Control Legislation

Gun Control Legislation

1.0. Gun Control Legislation. 3

2.0. Introduction. 3

2.1. Research Objectives. 4

2.2. Research Statement 4

2.3. Research Questions. 4

3.0. Theoretical Foundation. 5

4.0. Methodology. 8

5.0.     Finding. 9

5.1.     Public Policy and Social Threats. 9

5.2.     Public Administration’ Cost and benefits Analysis. 10

5.3.     Gun Control Legislations and Crime Rates. 11

5.4.     Socio-economic Factors and Crime Rates. 12

6.0. Discussion. 12

7.0. Conclusion. 14

8.0. References. 16

1.0. Gun Control Legislation

2.0. Introduction

Gun control is a hot topic in the United States of America, whereby the country is almost divided by the middle with one side supporting background checks while others are totally against any form of regulation on acquiring, possession, and use of firearms. Entities supporting federal laws on gun control attribute increase in crime to the loose firearms laws, while those against regulations such as background checks argue that the controls are against the rights and fundamental freedoms of the people as envisaged in the U.S constitution (Tarling & Dennis, 2016)

People and organizations against legislation intended to control ownership and use of firearms further cite the alcohol prohibition of 1920s, which led to an increase in state power and infringement of fundamental freedoms and rights. Therefore, implementing gun control laws will cause a significant degradation of constitutional freedom and the people’s traditional liberty. Factions against gun regulations also argue that limiting ownership and use of firearm will be against the Second Amendment and the right to property ownership (Hamilton & Kposowa, 2015).

According to Siegel et al (2013), each of the opposing sides has a point to make regarding gun control laws, hence making the matter very complicated. Apparently, the laws on firearms are very loose such that in some states a 16 year old can acquire a hunters’ rifle with a license or the legal paper work. Crime increase in some states is also a fact that nobody can wish away therefore anything connecting to the increase is a serious matter.

However, entities against the restrictions argue that gun ownership and use is intended for personal safety and there are socio-economic factors, which lead to increased crime rates more that gun ownership and use. Therefore, a stalemate exists, which requires an understanding of both sides argument, which will enhance inclusivity in the legislations amendment process. With the understanding of both sides’ arguments and grievances, an inclusive decision is arrived, which is a culmination of America’s democracy that highly values the rights and fundamental freedoms of the people.

2.1. Research Objectives

The primary intention of the study is to establish matters that lead to different opinions regarding the gun control legislation and to verify whether these issues hold any water in the current situation. The study seeks to analyze the truths and believes within each of the contexts and what makes the gun culture considering public administration. A comprehensive analysis of gun controls will also assist in identification of how social threats such as violent crime are affected by public policy.

Establishing the relevance of gun control brought about by the public administrators’ consideration of cost and benefits is also a goal of this research. The study also wishes to identify whether gun control legislations affect crime rates and if there exist particular categories of crime affected by the gun control laws. Finally, the study aims to identify if socio-economic factors affect crime rates more than gun regulations.

2.2. Research Statement

Policy-making is an unavoidable with some legislations such as gun laws in the United States playing a critical role in matters regarding crime rates whereby loose firearm policies lead to increased lawlessness, therefore implementing stringent regulations is one of the efficient ways of curbing crime.

2.3. Research Questions

  1. How does public policy affect social threats?
  2. How do public administrators’ consideration of costs and benefits affect the relevance of gun control?
  3. Do gun control laws affect crime rates?
  4. Are there specific categories of crime affected by the gun control legislations?
  5. How do the socio-economic factors affect crime rates compared to gun regulations?

3.0. Theoretical Foundation

According to Paul Steven, a former supreme-court judge, the constitution should be amended to accommodate stringent measures on gun control. The judge who served in the Supreme Court for thirty-five years, in his latest publication offers several stimulating ideas for improving or altering the foundational legal document. In a forthcoming book ‘Six Amendments: How and Why we should Change the Constitution’, Stevens proposes a change of the Second Amendment whereby he defends regulations on ownership and sale of firearms. According to maite, the second amendment is limited in that it applies to bearing and keeping firearms for military reasons and though it limits the federal state powers, the legislation does not limit in anyway, the powers of local, and states governments to regulate use and ownership of arms. According to Xuan & Hemenway (2015), the argument by the United States chief justice from 1969 to 1986, Warren burger, that the second amendment has been one of the biggest pieces of fraud by special interest groups on the American people is valid. Siegel et al (2013), insists that firearms manufacturers and sellers are against any changes on the law just for the sake of their interests. Besides, Schettler & Valenti (2010) postulates that the interest groups are concerned on profit making but not the security of American public. The scholar insists that if research has indicated that there is a connection of loose gun control legislation and crime rates in major cities, then there should be no any reasons not to amend the Second Amendment.

However, Esposito & Finley (2014) argues that, even if the Second Amendment requires some changes, most of controversies are based on interpretation, hence, changes should focus on making the law more particular. Christie (2017) cites the former chief justice John Paul Stevens who in 2008 was on the losing side in the infamous District of Columbia vs. Heller landmark ruling. In 5-4 ruling, the judges ruled that a civilian had the right to keep a short gun at home for self-defense reasons.

In the case, Justice Stevens argued that the Second Amendment provided that the state governments had the powers to regulate or control possession, ownership, manufacture or selling of firearms. In a similar style, in a 5-4 ruling, supreme-court judges extended the Heller application to the state and local government. This time, Justice Steven was again on the losing side. Albanese (2017) argues that the fact that Steven, who previously insisted that the law gave the states powers to restrict firearms ownership and use, is currently one of the ardent crusaders for changes in the Second Amendment to incorporate regulations by the federal and state governments indicates that there exists a problem in the interpretation of the laws.

Barrett (2014) though argues tragedies such as in Connecticut and Colorado indicate that the congress should enforce robust gun control laws. Kocsis (2015) postulates that strong gun control legislations are required to prevent massacres from happening. Christie (2017) cites Justice Stevens who argued that whether Heller was wrong or right, the issue concerned the effects of shifting ultimate power (to determine gun control legislations’ validity) from elected people to the federal judges who are life-tenured. Maite also singles out some tragedies such as the Chardon shooting of five girls by a sixteen-year-old T.J Lane to show the connection of loose gun laws and crime.

Contrary to the voices pro regulation on gun acquisition, possession, and use, there exist voices who vehemently oppose any changes to the Second Amendment citing personal security. Scholars such as maite also insist that people like Justice Steven should understand that constitutional interpretations evolve, and cultural and political factors as well, while guns have a symbolic meaning to the modern United States of America. Siegel et al (2013), postulates that a significant minority of the America’s population regard guns a symbol of independence, self-reliance, and individualism.

Kocsis (2015) insists that in the eyes of the people in support of the second amendment, subscription to a militia is nowhere in the equation in the modern context. In a research, which included various stakeholders on the gun control issue, maite established that amending the constitution, which involves amending an amendment, is a political matter that has to reflect and hence, consider the will of the people. Xuan & Hemenway (2015) established that in the modern America, a vast majority of the population, who pay taxes, obey the law like their firearms, and have an intention to keep them.

Hamilton & Kposowa (2015) insists that there are no practical connections between gun ownership and increase in crime rates, whereby the scholar argues that there are some socio-economic factors, which contribute to an upsurge in crime more than citizen’s possession of firearms. Tarling & Dennis (2016) further insists that the contribution of guns ownership to the public security through safe homes are not yet known hence the current firearms control legislations might be having more benefits, which are yet to be established.

According to maite, the people pro amendment of the Second Amendment to incorporate stringent regulations single out isolated cases to link the issue with crime. Schettler & Valenti (2010) indicates that apart from speculations, there are no specific categories of crimes, which can be linked with gun control laws. Therefore, maite argues that there is need for more research on the issue of gun control before rushing to propose changes. Further, Kocsis (2015) insists that the manner in which public administrators consider costs and benefits affect gun control is yet to be established. Barrett (2014) notes that people vehemently opposing regulations on gun ownership and use through federal legislations also insist that those controls are against the fundamental freedoms and rights of the citizen as provided by the U.S constitution. The opposing side insist that owning and using guns by the United States citizenry is provided by the constitution through the second amendment and introduction of regulations is retrogressive hence should not be entertained.

The literature above indicates that a stalemate exists between people pro stringent gun control regulation through federal legislations and those against any amendment. Apparently, people supporting amendment feel that the upsurge in crimes in the American cities is linked to the loose gun control laws and hence a need for tightening the legislation is inevitable. People pro amendments further feel that their counterparts mostly gun manufacturers and sellers are out to defend their interests forgetting the overall effects of their trade on the American citizens.

On the other hand, entities against federal regulations on guns insist that such moves are an infringement of the people’s right to own property. The antagonists further indicate that claims by their counterparts are based on misinformation and hence do not warrant for changing a policy with very great impacts on the people. According to maite, there is a need for involving both sides to achieve a comprehensive conclusion. Christie (2017) further suggests that an in-depth research on unverified claims such as the connection between gun control legislations and crime rate should be carried out to inform appropriately the decision-making process.

4.0. Methodology

A desktop method of research using a qualitative approach of study was the main strategy used in this study, whereby peer reviewed journal articles on gun control legislations, public administration, public policy and socio-economic factors, which affect crime rates were identified and analyzed. Qualitative method of research was preferred due to its ability to produce a huge volume of secondary data.  Appropriate keywords and phrases were formulated to help identify the best journal articles on the issues indicated above with regard to gun laws legislations.

Some of the keywords and phrases used in this research include public administration and cost and benefits, gun laws, gun laws and specific crimes, social-economic factors and crime in the cities, effects of gun control policies and social threats. A search of online libraries resulted to fifty peer reviewed articles being identified, where by ten of them were chosen considering there date of publishing.

Articles published more than ten years ago were discarded to ensure that information included in the study was valid, up-to-date, and accurate. Analysis of the secondary data from the peer-reviewed articles was done by identifying the main theme of every article and examining its relevance to the topic of study.

5.0.            Findings

5.1.            Public Policy and Social Threats

In a research to establish impacts of public policy on resolving social threats, Schettler & Valenti, (2010) established that environment legislations have been crucial in solving some environmental issues since 1980s and before. For instance, Kocsis (2015) points out the role played by the comprehensive Environment response, superfund, and compensation in 1980, which assisted in resolving the love canal issue. A hazardous waste site located in Niagara Falls in New York, Love Canal adversely affected residents near the location due to the chemicals disposed there.

One of the Niagara residents, for instance, Louis Gibbs, had his daughter diagnosed with a blood disease, urinary tract disorder, and Asthma. In 1990, love canal was destroyed and about fourteen billion dollars’ worth of claims have been filed against Hooker Chemical and Plastics Cooperation, which is the company behind chemical disposal, since the establishment of the environmental policies in 1980. Tarling & Dennis (2016) also notes that since the love canal issue, the United States government has been speedy to address other environmental cases whereby the policies created in the 80s have acted as the foundation for other environmental legislations.

Barrett (2014) also notes that the environmental policies created in the 80s and  some other subsequent laws on the matter have been widely criticized due to high costs involved, complexity, and there remedial rather than preventive actions. However, the U.S environmental policy has seen the country make critical steps towards clean environment. In every issue, that maite focused on, there were numerous decisions in terms of policies that were made by respective authorities including federal and the state governments. However, Esposito & Finley (2014) notes that there exists not even a single policy, which lacks critics and some few legislation had negative or no effect towards the problem they were intended to address.

5.2.            Public Administration’ Cost and benefits Analysis

According to Albanese (2017), Costs, and Benefits analysis (CBA), is a strategy of policy assessment, which quantifies the value to a particular agency of public policy consequences and impacts in monetary terms, whereby the ultimate objective is to aid an effective way of decision making where resources are efficiently allocated when market fails. According to Siegel et al (2013), if a policy passes the cost and benefit test, then it should be implemented.

However, Christie (2017) argues that the value of public policies cannot be evaluated only on economic benefits since there are other factors at play. Albanese (2017), in support of the CBA postulates that although the method incorporates one factor out of many, it is necessary to identify the trade-offs involved in a policy choice. For instance, a good CBA will tell how much efficiency should be foregone to achieve other values. In relation to gun controls, maite argues that the proposed background checks cannot be beneficial because only a small percentage of private gun sale is between strangers. Besides the proposed background checks are very broad such that they would turn almost every gun owner into a criminal for innocent actions such as lending a family member a firearm for an afternoon target shooting.

In addition, Kocsis (2015) established that a ban on magazines as proposed by the gun control proponents would have no effects because factory standards accommodate most of the sizes that are intended to be banned. Barrett (2014) further established that the magazines that are to be banned are very popular with the law-abiding citizens and law enforcers because they are very efficient in self-defense. Xuan & Hemenway (2015) notes that the proposed ban on assault firearms for twenty-five years also has no benefits in relation to crime reduction since the congress declined to renew the 1994-2004 ban citing lack of tangible crime reduction benefits.

Hamilton & Kposowa (2015) postulates that policy makers should consider that legal firearm owners have prevented several murders in the past before police appeared in the crime scene.

On the other hand, According to Christie (2017), the previous bans on firearms cannot be used to influence current policies because circumstances are changing with time. Albanese (2017) also argues that factory standards can change and there is no reason to argue that a ban on magazines is impossible. According to Siegel et al (2013), those insisting confiscation of firearms in the United States is impossible do not give satisfying reasons why it cannot be possible. Kocsis (2015) also insists that keeping firearms at home for self-defense does not make any sense because even criminals will be in possession of firearms and in most cases more sophisticated ones hence a law that denies both of the parties the right to be in possession of firearm is more beneficial to the residents. Besides, the rate of crimes committed with legal firearms is increasing day-by-day; hence banning these guns will have some benefits no matter how small it is.

5.3.            Gun Control Legislations and Crime Rates

Data from the CDC shows that states with most gun laws suffer the least firearm related deaths. The CDC data indicates that Alaska, which has considerably loose firearm laws, suffered most firearm age adjusted deaths in 2013. Hawaii, suffered the lowest gun related 2013 whereby Barrett (2014) attributes the figure to the stringent gun laws in the state. Christie (2017) notes that the 2013 deaths include suicides whereby twenty three percent of the total gun related deaths in the United States were by suicide.

According to Schettler & Valenti (2010), Homicides accounted for 33 percent of the total gun related deaths in the United States. However, Tarling & Dennis (2016) argues that, a relationship between gun laws and gun crimes in the United States can be hard to establish because it is very hard to establish random samples where one group possesses firearms and the other does not.

5.4.            Socio-economic Factors and Crime Rates

Esposito & Finley (2014) suggests that there are social and economic factors that contribute to crime rates other than legal possession and use of firearm. Barrett (2014) insists that social factors such as immigration have contributed highly to an upsurge in crime rates whereby states with high numbers of immigrants experience more crimes compared to those with few or no immigrants. Albanese (2017) also notes that cities with high number of poor people experience more crimes than those with low poverty levels. According to an FBI report, higher number of felonies and other categories of crime were recorded in shanties compared to posh estates in 2013.

However, Kocsis (2015) notes that most of crimes influenced by social economic factors were carried out using either legally acquired firearms or illegal firearms. Christie (2017) also notes that in 2013 there were a significant number of crimes committed by psychologically sick people using legally acquired firearms. Barrett (2014) indicates that there were also a considerably high number of domestic violence cases in states with fewer gun regulations.

6.0. Discussion

The above findings show a very complicated picture of gun control legislations whereby each of the two opposing sides have a case to make. The findings indicate that public policy possess significant effect on the social threats whereby they help in resolving issues pressing to the society. After all, it is apparent that in cases where there are social threats, policies whether good or bad have to be made in attempts to resolve the matter from escalating. In cases where the public policies fails to register any effects or does not work efficiently as expected there is always a room for going back to the drawing board.

The costs and benefits analysis on the gun controls indicate that most of the proposed firearm regulations do not hold much potential according to public administrators. Most of the regulations are futile and hence implementing them would bring no change. However, some dissenting voices feel that these arguments are not made with consideration of the current situation in the United States. Most of the analysis considers past bans, whereby the dynamics are not similar to the current situations in the United States. Apparently, gun related crimes are on the rise, and therefore firearm regulation is a serious matter. Whether implementing the gun laws prevents a million crimes from happening or one it is important. Besides, pursuing other methods of combating gun crimes is more expensive than regulating the use of guns.

Various studies show that there is an association of gun controls and the rate of crimes in the United States of America. States with more stringent gun laws register less crime rates and death compared to those with loose firearm legislation. The findings indicate that more stringent gun laws will lead to reduced crimes.

 However, the fact that linking gun laws to crime is not possible in the United States due to the inability of identifying a random sample that does not use firearm, speculations can be applied since policies have to made. The runaway insecurity cannot be left unaddressed just because of the lack of a direct link between gun laws and firearm crimes. Apparently, specific crimes such as homicide, domestic violence, and suicide are very popular in states with loose gun restrictions, thus, something should be done regarding the issue.

Regarding other social-economic factors leading to an increase in crimes, it is clear that they contribute to lawlessness whereby, for instance, cities with less poor people experience decreased levels of crime. However, it is more economical to implement a ban on firearms than trying to solve the social economic issues. Solving social and economic issues is a process, which will take generations to address while implementing a ban on firearms will be easy due to the existing enforcement structures.

Therefore, since making public policy on the social threats is inevitable, something will have to be done on the increasing crime rates. Although the cost and benefit analysis suggest that there are no significant benefits to be realized on implementing tighter legislation regarding firearms, the assumptions are wrongly made since circumstances in the past were different from the current ones. Although it is hard to establish a relationship between crimes and gun laws, speculations show that these two link whereby tougher firearm regulations result to reduced crime. The study also establishes that the existing socio-economic factors influencing crime rates are very hard to manage compared to firearm regulations.

7.0. Conclusion

The study above shows that the issue of gun control is hard to deal on whereby the American population is divided by half. Ignoring one faction and considering the other can have very adverse effects on the unity of the nation. The research has identified that policymaking is an inevitable process in cases of social threats. According to the study, the cost and benefit analysis conducted on the gun controls shows that there is not much to earn economically by implementing stringent measures, which further complicates the issue.

Further, the study reveals that in states with more regulations on guns, there is less crime rate compared to states with fewer restrictions on guns. Although scholars argue that it is complex to identify the relationship between gun laws and gun violence, the data from states shows that there is a connection between the two hence tough restrictions are required to minimize crime in the United States of America. Moreover, the fact that addressing socio-economic factors will take ages shows that implementing federal restrictions on firearms is one of the easiest ways to address some of the causes of runaway insecurity in the United States.

Therefore, the study suggests that United States must make policies regarding the issue of guns in the country, whereby the study points to an implementation of more stringent measures in the federal state. However, since there are factors, which cannot be verifiable, the measures should be for a particular period. Working with this kind of plan will help the country go back to the drawing board and evaluate the success or failure of the measures when the specified time for control measures lapses. The country should also ensure that the debate about the issue continues to keep a flow of ideas on how to handle the matter. With this kind of a strategy, people pro and against the measures will have a chance to see their ideas practically and hence an agreement will be easily reached.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8.0. References

Barrett, P. M. (2014, February 10). Gun control and the Constitution: Should we amend the Second Amendment? Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2014-02-20/gun-control-and-the-constitution

Albanese, J. (2017). Crime Control Measures, Individual Liberties, and Crime Rates. International Criminal Justice Review27(1), 5-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1057567716680401

Christie, N. (2017). A Comprehensive Accountability Framework for Public Administrators. Public Integrity, 1-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10999922.2016.1257349

Esposito, L. & Finley, L. (2014). Beyond Gun Control: Examining Neoliberalism, Pro-gun Politics and Gun Violence in the United States. Theory In Action7(2), 74-103. http://dx.doi.org/10.3798/tia.1937-0237.14011

Hamilton, D. & Kposowa, A. (2015). Firearms and Violent Death in the United States: Gun Ownership, Gun Control and Mortality Rates in 16 States, 2005-2009. British Journal Of Education, Society & Behavioural Science7(2), 84-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.9734/bjesbs/2015/16126

Kocsis, M. (2015). Gun Ownership and Gun Culture in the United States of America. Essays In Philosophy16(2), 154-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.7710/1526-0569.1530

Schettler, T. & Valenti, M. (2010). Environmental Threats to Healthy Aging: An Ecological Perspective. Public Policy & Aging Report20(3), 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ppar/20.3.1

Siegel, M., Ross, C., & King, C. (2013). The Relationship Between Gun Ownership and Firearm Homicide Rates in the United States, 1981–2010. American Journal Of Public Health103(11), 2098-2105. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2013.301409

TARLING, R. & DENNIS, R. (2016). Socio-Economic Determinants of Crime Rates: Modelling Local Area Police-Recorded Crime. The Howard Journal Of Crime And Justice55(1-2), 207-225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hojo.12157

Xuan, Z. & Hemenway, D. (2015). State Gun Law Environment and Youth Gun Carrying in the United States. JAMA Pediatrics169(11), 1024. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.2116

A Comparison of Angkor Wat and Bayon

A Comparison of Angkor Wat and Bayon

Conventionally, Khmer kings used the act of building temples as a means to lay a claim to the powers and protection of the Hindu gods, as well as to express the power they possessed to lead the people. The temples were not meant to be places for the believers to congregate in worship but served as homes for the gods they were dedicated to. For instance, for a king to be able to lay a claim to power, it was important for him to provide proof that the gods did not support his enemies by building a place of residence for them. Notably, each king focused on building a grand place for the gods that was superior to the rest that were built by his predecessors by making it as lavish as possible. In so doing, the king would portray his ability to amass the resources and energy required to come up with such a grand structure. Therefore, Khmer temples built by different kings during their reign possess outstanding differences, especially in architecture and use, despite them having a similar fundamental purpose of housing the gods, which led to an increased level of similarities among all of the monuments.

Angkor Wat and Bayon represent a wide range of the differences and similarities present in ancient Khmer temples. The Angkor Wat, located in the Siem Reap region in Cambodia, is considered to be one of the largest religious monuments in the world. Construction of the temple is estimated to have begun in 1116 C.E, three years after king Suryavarman II ascended to the throne, and ended around 1150, a short period following the king’s death (Jessup and Zephir 108). The monument was dedicated to Vishnu, regarded as the protector among the principle gods of the Hindu religion. Therefore, the king, by building Angkor Wat, intended to assure the people that Vishnu was protecting them, as a kingdom.  However, use of the temple as Suryavarman’s mausoleum after his death shows that the king was highly regarded as a god by the people. Notably, dedicating the temple to the Vishnu was a break from routine, as earlier rulers embraced the Shaiva tradition hence their mausoleums were devoted to the tradition as well. Therefore, the monument has remained as one of the prominent religious centers in the world due to its outstanding uniqueness compared to the rest of the ancient temples.

On the other hand, the Bayon is regarded as the most loved landmark at Angkor. The thick wilderness encompassing the Bayon covered its position in connection to different structures at Angkor hence it was understood that the monument remained in the correct focus of the city of Angkor Thom. Scholars in the field of art and beyond have expressed sentiments to indicate that the face towers of Bayon have a stunning resemblance to king Jayavarman VII (Ibbitson, 161). In addition, previous studies have established that the monument is the last to be built in Angkor, and the only that was dedicated to the Buddha. However, other smaller deities were encompassed to represent the various cities and districts in the kingdom. Therefore, the monument was unique from the previous ones, such as Angkor Wat that was devoted to specific Khmer god, due to its dedication to Budha and its inclusion of small deities

 The stone faces, in the temple, carved in sets of four with each being identical to the rest and facing a different cardinal direction is one of the unique features of the building. Previous research interpretes the faces’ orientation as the omnipresence of their owner. In addition, the appearance of the faces has been attributed to the higher mindedness of the gods hence depict Avalokitesvara; the god of compassion. Notably, scholars have used the close resemblance of the over 200 faces in the temple towers to the kings statues to argue that they were a representation of the ruler Jayavarman VII is a celebrated and respected king because he led the army to evict invaders and salvage the capital of Cambodia. Therefore, the presence of Jayavarman IV image in the faces of the temple has led to an assumption that the king considered himself to because of his immense victory at war. Therefore, the monument is similar to Angkor Wat because it is was used to house divined powers but is unique because it was used by the king to portray himself as god, as well as to house Buddha and many gods. 

The Outstanding difference between the Bayon and Agkor Wat is that the former was a house to Buddha, while the latter was dedicated to Hindu gods. In addition, the uncanny resemblance of the faces, in Bayon, to the sculptures of the king shows that he portrayed attributes of the bodhisattva. On the other hand, Agkor Wat was used to portray the king as god by making it his mausoleum. Thus, one of the similarities between the two is that they were both used to portray the kings as gods. However, the differences arises from the users of the temples, which was the people for Agkor Wat and the king for Bayon. In addition, the temples were similar because they were used to house divine powers but differ in the number of gods housed, with Agkor wat housing one god, while Bayon included Buddha and multiple deities, well. Therefore, the Monuments possessed a wide range of similarities due to their fundamental purpose of housing divined powers but included a significant range of differences because they built by different rulers.

Work Cited

Jessup, Helen Ibbitson. Art & architecture of Cambodia. London: Thames & Hudson, 2004.

Jessup, Helen Ibbitson, and Thierry, Zephir. Sculpture of Angkor and Ancient Cambodia: Millenium of Glory. National Gallery of Art, 1997.

Applications of Second Screen Synchronization

Applications of Second Screen Synchronization

Literature Review

This chapter examines recent literature related to second screen synchronization mostly on challenges and ways to overcome methods overcome those challenges. According to Spilo et al. (2015), 84 percent of smartphones users and 86% of tablet owners in the United States in the second quarter of 2012 indicated that they utilized second screen of their choosing while watching television at least for once in a month. However, the study also established that 41 percent and 39% of tablet and smartphones owners multitask at least once in a 24 hours.

Howson et al. (2011) note the most of the digital network strategists have realized an opportunity in the people’s attachment to a second screen while watching TV, whereby currently, some of the largest cable programmers and broadcast networks are tinkering on ways to offer more information on the second screen like Yahoo. However, Aditya (2010), postulate that the technology behind second screen possesses numerous technical challenges, which must be addressed.

Some of the challenges involved in second screen synchronization include embedding and detecting of marks in real time. Since second screen synchronization involves second sending of some of the content over the internet, Non Crogh & Ebay (2016) insist that appropriate marking is required to keep off necessary ever-popular cyber-attacks.

 According to Ton et al. (2011), technology such as visual encrypting and water marking are essential in ensuring that second screen synchronization works as expected. However, Sandoval et al. (2013) note that the much of the previous studies on the topic has not covered information related to digital content marking for second screen synchronization. Therefore, the technology still is at its infancy stage and faces many challenges in its current nature.

Overview of Second Screen Synchronization

 According to Amir & Shahrokh (2012), second screen is utilizing a computing device such as a tablet, laptop, smartphone to offer an improved experience for another device’s content; for instance a TV. Specifically, the technique refers to the utilization of a device to offer interactive aspects when content is being broadcasted; for instance a program on TV, particularly postings on social media networks such as twitter and Facebook. Using a second screen enhances social TV and generation of conversation on the online platforms around the content being broadcasted.

Perumanam (2012) indicates that second screen television is relies on strong device synchronization of the every device in participation for better management of interactive visualization of the additional content. According to Sandoval et al. (2012), several techniques of device synchronization exists which include time code synch, closed captions, direct link, manual synch, visual, and audio synch. However, Non Crogh & Ebay (2016) indicate that most of these approaches possess numerous challenges in terms of synchronization.

Nature of Video Based Encoding

According to Howson et al. (2011), video encoding technology is necessary to enhance second screen synchronization. Video encoding technologies are required in improving the security of data sent via the internet to the second screen. According to Spilo et al. (2015) video encoding technology are also necessary in ensuring that; in case of an attack, data recovery is easy and in expensive. However, according to Sandoval et al. (2013), the existing video encoding technology is not adequate to offer the necessary encryption required in the current second screen interaction.

Perumanam (2012) argues that the current video encoding technologies possess a major drawback, which is embedding and extraction of data in real time, which is very desirable in the second screen synchronization. Spilo et al. (2015) argue that information on the second screen is required to be tandem with the larger screen; otherwise, the information will bear no relevance to the user. In addition, Sandoval et al. (2012) argues that watermarks on the content should not intrude, thereby causing damage to the content.

However, Howson et al. (2011), note that the existing video encoding technologies are not as robust as the audio ones. Therefore, Spilo et al. (2015) argue that various challenges exists in the video encryption technology whereby incidences such as cyber-attacks are a real threat to second screen synchronization, whereby attackers can hijack the process and introduce malicious information to the second screen. Extracting the watermarks from the content in real time is also a real issue to the second screen synchronization because users require information in real-time.

Despite the challenges existing in the video encoding, several studies have conducted regarding the issues. For instance, some strategies have been proposed to address the issues of real time mark extracting. In addition, mechanisms to improve the robustness of encryption to enhance security have been developed and others proposed. Therefore, as Manoj & Arnold (2013) argue, the current state of second screen synchronization is expected to become better in future, whereby, the experience of users is expected to highly improved through robust security, visualization, improved quality of information. According to Howson et al. (2011), increased applications, with elegant technologic capabilities regarding second screen synchronization, presence is also expected in the market.

Challenges of Second Screen Synchronization

According to Sandoval et al. (2013), second screen involves sharing of content over two displays that are spatially disconnected; therefore, introducing a particular category of MDE (multi display environment) with a bigger screen for instance, a television or a computer, and the second smaller screen especially a smartphone or a tablet. Since devices possess different intrinsic characteristics, and second screen include the requirement to switch attention between the involved screens, multi display environments include unique issues to the interactive interfaces design.

Non Crogh & Ebay (2016) argue that immense studies have been conducted regarding human computer interaction and the cooperative work supported by computers to improve the understanding of the design characteristics. However, Sandoval et al. (2012) note that there is no a lot of previous research concerning the manner in which data visualization functions in MDEs. One of the previous work on data visualization in multi display environments is WeSpace, which involved users sharing visual content on their laptops from a larger screen. Perumanam (2012) utilized a similar approach while researching on multi display environments in the automotive sector. Additionally, Non Crogh & Ebay (2016) developed an idea for managing smart view for smart rooms, whereby the technique puts together different system views taking into account the position of the users, semantics, and direction of views to be displayed. Sandoval et al. (2013) also suggested a middleware framework for the implementation of the visualization application in multi display environments with changing user directions. Although some of the previous studies have tried to tackle issues related to second screen visualization, research on the topic, more research is still required to ensure that the technology improves user experience. In addition, most of the issues regarding second screen synchronization still exist even when the demand is constantly high.

As indicated earlier, some of the existing approaches to solve the synchronization issues in the second screen technologies possess various users that make them undesirable. For instance the manual synchronization, which involves embedding a visible or audible trigger into the content that is broadcasted, whereby the user is required to press a button or select a specific position on the timeline to synch. According to Howson et al. (2011), the approach is easy; the method cannot uphold synchronization after pausing streaming.

Use of time codes or directly linking devices via the use of web server or a WIFI, are alternatives to the manual synch. However, Sandoval et al. (2012) explains that the approaches require special hardware; hence, limiting the wide applicability in varying scenarios. Closed caption is another alternative; however, much of the content does not offer them. Visual sync triggers is another approach to synchronization whereby natural features as well as QR codes are used, but the technique is computationally expensive and is highly dependent on the situation of lighting. With all these types of approaches possessing numerous challenges, Spilo et al. (2015) argue that alternative methods for synchronization are required to address the issues identified above. Additionally, none of the above techniques above adequately addresses the issues of video-based technology, whereby a marker, which not supposed to intrude on the content, is embedded on the content. Removing the marker from the content in a changing range and resolution of the captured content is another source of challenge regarding synchronization.

Strategies to Overcome Second Screen TV Synchronization Challenges

According to Non Crogh & Ebay (2016), there exist several ways of addressing numerous issues related to video encoding which include video watermarking, whereby use of technique such as visual cryptography and data hiding techniques or a combination of both.

For instance, Sandoval et al. (2012) proposed an algorithm of watermarking for video sequences, which was based on the idea of visual cryptography and was conducted on a spatial domain. In this technique, owners’ shares mark including a visible logo, are the watermarks, which are embedded, which appear as pseudo-spread spectrum sequences. The algorithm for the detection of the watermark is based on the knowledge that stacking which contains the logo’s corresponding shares, achieves an improved correlation with that logo, in comparison to stacking of frames with the logo’s shares that are not relevant. The approach, according to Howson et al. (2011) is a perfect solution to geometric distortions and video processing strategies that are non-pressing. The idea is also a countermeasure to critical challenges to video watermarking challenges such as collusion attack.

According to Sandoval et al. (2013), the method can also be used in marking video content for second synchronization since it provides watermarks that are not visible to the user and are easily decrypted. Non Crogh & Ebay (2016) argue that the approach enhances second screen synchronization due to applicability in a wide range of content and lighting. Perumanam (2012) also developed a watermarking technology to monitor content broadcast monitoring.

Acknowledging the challenges of broadcast monitoring, the scholar presented several technical options. The uniqueness of the technique lies in the manner it exploits shift invariance to acquire an improved payload and measure of reliability for every detection. The technology has been applied on various platforms indicating real time detection and embedding feasibility. In addition, VIVA tests revealed the high performance of the technology in terms of robustness and visibility. Therefore, the method is also a prefect technology for second screen synchronization to the ability of the solution to improve visibility and robustness, which are major source of concern in 2nd screen synchronization. In addition, using the technique, embedding, and detection of watermarks can be done in real time, which is a primary demand of second screen synchronization. However, Howson et al. (2011) note that the technology requires some future improvement regarding rotation and scaling strengths.

Perumanam (2012) also to improve the robustness of the content for the second screen, proposed a sophisticated approach to ensure that the watermarks are uncorrupted in case of attacks. The technique proposed by the scholar addressed retrieval of data without any loss while upholding high data security.

The primary goal of the scholars was to come up with a video watermarking technique that was invisible and adequately robust to carry increased payload by applying a secure watermark distributed throughout the entire video file. The strategy also utilizes a layered strategy that enhances correct extract the watermark once it has been embedded on a within a video; hence, improving the system security.

The proposed solution was supposed to be capable of reversible data hiding. According to the scholars, the solution to the existing video encrypting issues is a hybrid model involving wavelet, histogram, and cryptography approaches. The hybrid solution was expected to improve the robustness of the copyright image, watermark data, and the payload as well. The proposed watermarking mechanism was also expected to enhance original information extraction after several distortion attacks.

From the literature examined above, it is apparent second screen synchronization is an important aspect of the modern television watching. Therefore, TV networks are required to ensure that they offer the necessary applications to support a second screen on most or all of their programs. However, currently, there exists a challenge in video encoding whereby issues such as regarding security exist. In addition, embedding and detecting watermarks in real time as a problem of second screen encryption.

In that regard, several methods have tried and tested and other proposed to offer a solution to the issues of second screen encryption. Techniques such as video cryptography and histogram approach have been proposed to monitor, and improve the security of content sent on the online platforms as well as enhance embedding and extracting of the watermarks in reals time. Some of the existing studies have also revealed methods of improving the visualization of the content data on the second screen, which is an immense problem in the second screen synchronization.

References

Howson, C., Gautier, E., Gilberton, P., Laurent, A. and Legallais, Y., 2011, September. Second screen TV synchronization. In Consumer Electronics-Berlin (ICCE-Berlin), 2011 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 361-365). IEEE.

Sandoval, F. and Kakatsakis, G., Cable Television Laboratories, Inc., 2013. Synchronization of 2nd screen applications. U.S. Patent 8,516,528.

Montagud, M., Boronat, F., Stokking, H. and van Brandenburg, R., 2012. Inter-destination multimedia synchronization: schemes, use cases and standardization. Multimedia systems18(6), pp.459-482.

Spilo, M. and Daub, J., Netgear, Inc., 2015. Method and system for synchronization of digital media playback. U.S. Patent 8,973,063.

Von Krogh, C.J., Ebay Inc., 2016. Token device re-synchronization through a network solution. U.S. Patent 9,398,003.

Perumanam, R., Cahnbley, J. and Mandrekar, I., Thomson Licensing, 2012. Method and apparatus for multimedia stream synchronization. U.S. Patent Application 13/732,023.

Aditya, V, Rajarathnam, N, Amitabha, 2010. Watermarking video content using visual cryptography and scene averaged image. IEEE International Conference. Multimedia and Expo

Amir, H, Shahrokh, G, 2012. A Novel Video Watermarking Method Using Visual Crygraphy. Sharif University of Technology

Manoj, K, Arnold, H, 2013. Robust Digital Video Watermarking using Reversible Data Hiding and Visual Cryptography. Network Security and Digital Forensics Group

Ton, K, Geert, D, Jaap, H, Maurice M, 2011. A Video Watermarking System for Broadcast Monitoring. Philips Research

Literature and Medicine

               Literature and Medicine

Susan Sontag and Eugene O’Neil are two great literary artists who stand out for their thematic correlation in addressing issues of disease on persons and the different metaphors preached by society to explain their cause. In Illness as a metaphor, Sontag argues against societal misconceptions of associating disease with personal character, identity and or other mystical powers. Consequently, O’Neil depicts the negative consequences of a family’s struggle with addiction, disease and their misconceptions on the actual causes of their predicaments. Therefore, this paper will delve to show the manner in which Mary’s addiction and Edmunds tuberculosis in the play Long Day’s Journey and The Night by Eugene O’Neil reinforces Sontag’s argument of misconceptions and metaphors regarding illnesses in the society.

In the play the Long Day’s Journey into the Night play by Eugene O’Neil Mary who is the mother to Edmund is addicted to morphine while her sick son, Edmund, is an alcoholic. Both characters and the other family members feel that their conditions are driven by situations that happened sometimes back in their life. Mary blames her addiction to when she had problems giving birth and subscribed to morphine while everybody including Edmund feels that excessive consumption of alcohol is the cause of his sickness. “I’m not blaming you, dear. How can you help it? How can any one of us forget? That’s what makes it so hard – for all of us. We can’t forget.” (1.1.228) this statement by Mary shows how the society blames abstract conditions for challenges that can be overcome through proper diagnosis and treatment.

Sontag’s main objective behind all claims made in the book is to object to the notion that there are certain psychological causes of disease. This is because diseases are physical issues that are best addressed by getting the best medical diagnosis and treatment. As regards this idea that most people believe to be true, Sontag expresses concern about people believing that an illness such as cancer can be caused by repressed emotions.  Sontag explains that believing in such an idea is similar to the belief of claims that tuberculosis was earlier associated with sensitive natures. The main reason the author likens the two beliefs is that later on in life scientists proved that tuberculosis had nothing to do with personality (Sontag 13). Rather they ascertained that it was caused by the bacillus bacteria and could only be treated by use of antibiotics rather than a change in personality. Sontag argues that diseases such as cancer and tuberculosis are dispelled when their causes are revealed. Thus, the writer draws on different literary works and texts in an attempt to show the manner in which art has shaped the public perception of illness.

While, Sontag has a direct criticism to persons and agents in society propagating the different causes of illness as a reflection of one’s personal identity Eugene on the other hand has a different approach; letting the audience deduct the message from the play. She criticizes the myths that people hold regarding the heightened spirituality and sensitivity as well as the metaphoric notion about the concept of illness as a whole. The play highlights on how individual members of a society can lead others astray through baseless lies and misconceptions of issues. For example Mary says, “I hate doctors! They’ll do anything – anything to keep you coming to them. They’ll sell their souls! What’s worse, they’ll sell yours, and you never know it till one day you find yourself in hell!”( O’Neill 67) to her sick son Edmund who is sick of Tuberculosis and in such a situation the soundest thing to do is visit a hospital. This is because the director of the play brings out the idea and claims that guilt and other personality variables are the main causes of illnesses among the various characters used in the film. However, the director uses illness as an open-ended form of metaphor in a bid to bring out the various consequences of personality issues to illnesses.

Throughout the play, Eugene  points out the fact that most of the time people never get the solution to their problems because they search for solutions where they don’t exist and this rhymes with Sontag’s strong advocacy against putting blame on individuals personality and regarding illness as a psychological and philosophical implications of one’s actions. Despite the fact that the plot of the film is quite difficult to map and is a bit challenging, it is worth since it dramatizes the shift that the concept of medicine has taken as regards what people believe to be the causes of diseases. At one point James who is the brother to Edmund tells Edmund, “If your mother had prayed, too – She hasn’t denied her faith, but she’s forgotten it, until now there’s no strength of the spirit left in her to fight against the curse…. We’ve lived with this before and now we must again. There’s no help for it….By God, I never will again.”  Therefore, that statement serves not as a contradiction to Sontag’s argument; instead it serves to highlight how society regards illnesses and its causes.

Both Sontag and Eugene have been profound contributors to the field of literature in relation to medicine; with Sontag arguing against victim-blaming metaphors often used to describe diseases while Eugene now uses the play to show such actions in play. Both artists may have employed use of different genre but their message is crystal clear and in harmony that the society should not blame patients instead everyone should seek diagnosis and treatment for their ailments. Therefore, the society, as described by Eugene O’Neil and Sontag, possesses a wrong perception about illnesses, hence patients should seek medical attention for ailments, such as tuberculosis, rather than be deluded by baseless metaphors and misconceptions.

Works Cited

O’Neill, Eugene. Long Day’s Journey into Night. 1987.

Sontag, Susan. Illness as metaphor and AIDS and its metaphors. Blackstone Publishing, 2018.p. 1-138

Leadership Challenges Facing Nonprofit Organizations

Leadership Challenges Facing Nonprofit Organizations

Introduction

Nonprofit organizations which are also referred to as not for business entities are groups of people who have been brought together by a shared idea that they want to further. The organizations are composed of various categories that are not limited to schools, hospitals, and churches. Some of the ideas at the center of such groups include culture, education, religion, and professional. However, the institutions normally receive their funding from their members, donors, and trustees as well. The amount of money granted is usually subject to government deductions in form of tax. During the in-depth research regarding the operations and management of the organizations,  I came across the Amnesty International, that has its headquarters in London, United Kingdom. The charitable organization was started by one Peter Benenson and has grown over time to attract close to seven million members and supporters. It is mainly concerned with human rights and has built offices across the globe. Therefore, this report will focus on the various challenges that are facing the organization together with the measures that have been put into place in an effort to contain them. Ideally, the lessons learned from the evaluation and analysis of the management of Amnesty is valuable to both aspiring students and current leaders in helping them add to their skills.

Lack of Ethical Leadership

One of the main challenges facing Amnesty international is a lack of leaders with ethics. When donors and members contribute their money to charitable organizations, it is everyone’s expectation that they will use part of the resources to help develop bold, focused leaders who are capable of demonstrating highest levels of ethics. Today, we see prolonged human rights violations in countries like Syria, Iraq, South Sudan and Somalia (Taleb, Bahelah, Fouad, Coutts, Wilcox & Maziak, 2015). Therefore, there is an ultimate need to blend a new generation of ethical leaders who can help tackle myriad challenges facing the globe (Lalor, & MCElvaney, 2017). The management of Amnesty has organized various human rights education platforms around the world to help share their knowledge with new members but it is not enough. The importance of developing more ethical leaders who can genuinely fight for adherence to human rights is of great value.

Insufficient Leadership Development

There is an existing gap in leadership development because the majority of the graduates often act like managers and not leaders. Managers are individuals who coordinate processes and implement policies. On the other hand, leaders are influential personalities who inspire actions together with the people they lead. Good leaders are strong men and women who are capable of delivering people from a crisis and act as role models to be followed by the others (Deresky, 2017). Amnesty international do expose human rights violations to the world but there is a lack of inspiration that has the ability to bring to a halt such violations. In consequence, dictators like Syrian President, Bashar Al Assad are still in power and continue to unleash chemical weapons and murdering their own people without a strong opposition from activists. Therefore, the leadership gap really needs to be filled if the efforts of the organization are worthy.

Poor Succession Planning

The world is bound to face even more complex challenges in the future. So, the need to prepare future leaders is vital in helping to take care of the young generation. Today, the majority of nonprofit making organization employees including amnesty lies in the regions of 50 to 70 years, which means that they will be seeking retirement in the near future (Hopkins, Meyer, Shera & Peters, 2014). It makes sense for them to keep looking inwards in order to develop people who can take the others to the next level. With the majority of people now moving to urban areas, there is a looming housing crisis if this trend is not properly monitored (Anheier, 2014). However, amnesty has launched a program to cross-train their staff in order to avoid management disruptions when people retire and others come in. Nevertheless, identifying future challenges and matching them with qualifies required to contain them is an idea that perhaps the organizations will need to consider for effective management.

Conclusion

Not for profit organizations are institutions that are led by a shared idea with a sole intention to further it. There are multiple of them around the globe including Amnesty, The Carter Center, Americans United, and Coalition to Stop Gun Violence. In most cases, these organizations are funded by donors and their own members.  The money they receive is subject to taxation by the governments. The aim is to help drive their cause and, therefore, they don’t expect anything in return as profit. An inward look at Amnesty International exposes some three main challenges that they are battling to contain. Lack of ethical leadership, where leaders are ineffective in their actions tops the list. Secondly, is the fact that much of the organization’s leadership development programs focus their energies on producing more managers than strong influential men and women who are capable of marshaling a people and delivering them out of a crisis. Thirdly, of course, is the poor succession plan that hampers every effort to counter new challenges. Ideally, the issues discussed are not only important for the future of nonprofit sectors but are also valuable in enabling their effectiveness over the long term.

References

Anheier, H. K. (2014). Nonprofit organizations: Theory, management, policy. Routledge.

Deresky, H. (2017). International management: Managing across borders and cultures. Pearson Education India.

Hopkins, K., Meyer, M., Shera, W., & Peters, S. C. (2014). Leadership challenges facing nonprofit human service organizations in a post-recession era. Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership & Governance38(5), 419-422.

Lalor, K., & MCElvaney, R. (2017). Current Perspectives on Violence Against Children in Europe. In Violence Against Children (pp. 186-206). Routledge.

Simmons, P. J. (1998). Learning to live with NGOs. Foreign policy, 82-96.

Taleb, Z. B., Bahelah, R., Fouad, F. M., Coutts, A., Wilcox, M., & Maziak, W. (2015). Syria: health in a country undergoing tragic transition. International journal of public health60(1), 63-72.

Kelley’s Model of Followership

Kelley’s Model of Followership

            Followers, especially in the current information era, are equally important as leaders to an organizational, hence necessitates matching of the followership and leadership styles to yield optimum and desired results. According to Bjugstad, Thach, Thompson and Morris (2006), organization, leaders perform followership, while followers assume leadership roles, in different instances. Moreover, leadership does not flourish in a vacuum but requires followership to achieve its ultimate objective. In this regard, the two concepts are significantly intertwined, hence demanding for a combined research effort to identify the best ways to improve organizational efficiency, particularly in decision making. However, there are distinct individual leadership and followership styles and characteristics that work best for specific situations but flop in others. For instance, participative decision-making works best for tactical than strategic decisions, while according to Kelley’s framework of followership, confident and enthusiastic workers are likely to be more participative in decision oriented processes compared to passive followers, because they do not rely on the thinking of the leader. Therefore, a leader must be aware of their follower’s category to effectively anticipate their behavioral responses to specific leadership styles and aspects, hence identifying the best approach to influence the outcome.

            In an organization, different types of followers exhibit distinct characteristics, hence calls for varied leadership methods to appropriately function for the best interest of the organization. In this regard, leadership must dedicate considerable effort to understand and categorize followers, as well as formulate and execute favorable techniques for each category of followership. Kelley’s framework of followership, which is based on acting and thinking dimensions, consists of four distinct types of followers with unique characteristics. The alienated set includes the cynical but independent and capable employees, while conformists are likely to follow orders, as well as actively participate in organizational roles. Furthermore, according to Kelley’s model, passive followers heavily rely on leadership thinking, hence demanding constant directions, while the exemplary category consists of autonomous and creative individuals who are always willing to question the decisions of their leaders (Bjugstad, Thach, Thompson & Morris, 2006). Thus, organizational leadership must employ unique techniques, to every category of followership while meeting specific demands of individual members to improve the overall functionality of the organization.

            Apart from identifying follower categories leader must adopt specific relational- and task-oriented behavior to effectively respond to different situations, hence improve the outcome. According to the situational leadership theory, by Hersey and Blanchard, there exist four categories of techniques a leader can use to effectively and appropriately respond to different situations. One of the situational leadership theory techniques is telling, which should be employed in situations including followers with inadequate or no training, low confidence or the will to complete an assignment. The theory suggests that leaders should predominantly use task-oriented behaviors, by providing detailed and clear directions, as well as monitoring performance to guide such followers. In situations in which followers are adequately confident and willing but cannot complete a task, the theory recommends the selling technique, which includes a high use of both task and relationship behaviors to offer guidance through decision clarifications. The third situational leadership theory can be used to enhance follower motivation in cases that include capable, but less confident individuals by encouraging them to participate in decisions making and acknowledging their efforts. The last technique involves delegating by turning over the responsibility to followers depicting a high level of confidence, motivation and capability (Bjugstad, Thach, Thompson & Morris, 2006). Thus, using one or more situational leadership theory techniques, a leader can satisfy the unique demands of every individual in the four categories of followership as described by Kelley.

            The effectiveness of the situational leadership theory techniques requires essential skills to analyze and manipulate the follower’s behavioral response. A ‘leader-like’ demeanor possesses significant negative impacts including stifling the follower voice in participative responses. In this regard, the leader must understand the type of follower, hence the situation to adopt the best leadership style, which can immensely enhance the achievement of the expected outcome. For instance, a leader must exhibit a weak ‘leader-like’ demeanor in a situation with exemplary followers to ensure participative decision making. On the other hand, the leader must depict a high level of competency and credibility while dealing with passive or conformist followers to offer the necessary guidance. Apart from identifying the best leadership style to particular situations, leaders can use followership knowledge to achieve their intended objective. For example, in a scenario where minimum contribution is desired, but with exemplary followers, the leader must show a high level of competence and confidence through various types of non-verbal communication, such as a high tone and appropriate posture, to discourage participants from questioning their decisions (Locke & Anderson, 2010). Therefore, with appropriate follower knowledge, a leader can identify the best time and manner in which to exhibit a ‘leader-like’ demeanor.

            The follower knowledge is equally essential as the leadership capabilities to a leader, as well as an organization.  Individuals in an organization interchangeably perform leadership and followership roles, hence require skills to perform in both capacities as and to when demanded. In addition, for the leadership to attain the desired output, it must employ favorable techniques while considering the type of followers available to participate in the realization of the expected objective. For instance, for a leader to achieve the best result with a team that lacks adequate skills, confidence and desire to complete a task, he/she must provide sufficient details to guide the followers, as well as monitor the output. On the other hand, the leader can choose to modify the behavioral responses of the followers using the leadership demeanor. In a case where the leadership desires minimum or reduced questioning, but the available members only include exemplary followers, a powerful ‘leader-like’ demeanor is required to instigate conformity. Therefore, with appropriate follower knowledge, leaders can effectively identify the best leadership styles or techniques to use, hence achieve the best and desired responses and results from the followers.

References

Bjugstad, K., Thach, E. C., Thompson, K. J., & Morris, A. (2006). A fresh look at followership: A model for matching followership and leadership styles. Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management7(3), 304.

Locke, C. C., & Anderson, C. (2010). The downside of looking like a leader: leaders’powerful demeanor stifles follower voice in participative decision-making. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2010, No. 1, pp. 1-6). Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management.

Creating the Office Network

IT Admin Homes Task

Creating the Office Network

List of Devices

No.DeviceTypeQuantity
1RouterVoIP capable2
2Wireless Router5 and 2.4 GHz capable, VoIP routers1
3Ethernet Switch 8
4ADSL router  
5Broadband Bonding Network Appliance 1
6Application Serverphysical1
7File Serverphysical1
8Email Serverphysical1
9Web Server 1
10UPS devices  
11Data Center Chiller 1

Network Description

NetworkTypeSpeed
Wired LAN1000 BASE-T Ethernet1000 MBPS
Wireless LAN802.11a and/or 802.11g54 MBPS
Phone Line ConnectionADSL2+M24 MBS download, 3.5 MBS upload

Secondary Backup Link Connection

Automatic Synchronized Customer Failover

5GHz and 2.4GHz network

The primary difference between the 5GHz and the 2.4 GHz is the wireless network speed. Under normal circumstances, 2.4 GZ provides wireless network speed ranging from 450 to 600 megabytes per second. On the other 5GHz network can support a speed of up to 1300 megabytes per second. The 2.4 GHz networks have the desirable range, bandwidth and wall penetrating properties to support the needs of the mobile electronics and applications consume. In this regard, because the proposed network includes a wireless component for guests, who will most likely be using mobile devices, such as smartphones, it is necessary to have a 2.4 GHz WI-FI component. Nevertheless, 2.4 GHz is highly prone to radio frequency interference. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance operation in the 5 GHz offers many non-overlapping channels, hence significantly reduces over-crowding. Moreover, because it has a high potential to expand the bandwidth, the 5 GHz significantly increases the communication frequency (Yamamoto et al., 2019). Thus, it is necessary to ensure that network can operate on both 2.4 and 5GHz to guarantee improved range, wall penetration, bandwidth, as well as enhanced communication through the Wireless component of the network.

WLAN

A WLAN (wireless local area network), also referred to as a LAWN (local area wireless network) is a wireless distribution technique for two or more devices using high-frequency radio waves through an internet access point. The WLAN enables the movement of network users within the coverage area without losing connection (Gao, Yang, Hu, Zhang & Wang, 2019).

Media Converter

A media converter refers to a device that is utilized to link incompatible media. For instance, the device enhances the connection between fiber optic and twisted pair, such as Cat 6 cables to support Ethernet compatible devices, such as PCs. The device may as well be used to make the connect networks comprising of single-mode coaxial cable to multi-mode optic fiber cable. It may also link together networks comprised of coax cable, and single-mode to fiber optic fiber is usually a multi-mode cable. 

Additional Devices

  1. Insulating Devices

Data Center Chillers

  • Power Backup Devices

Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS) devices

Online UPS devices

Line interactive UPS devices

Flashing Icon

The appearance of a flashing question mark folder, such as shown in figure 1 below, indicates that Mac cannot locate its system folder. The process of fixing this problem depends on boot type. If booting is from a solid state drive, the initial step is to verify that the boot disk is connected to a power source and to the computer as well. In the case boot is from an internal drive, the initial step is to power the computer down and on again, while pressing the options key. Normally the computer should display the startup manager with the startup disk as one of the options. The startup disk should be selected to initiate the boot process. If the computer still fails to boot, a repeat of the process should be conducted, but rather than the startup disk, the Recovery HD should be selected from the startup manager to initiate the system recovery process. The Mac is supposed to boot from the recovery partition and display a utility menu from which the disk utility should be selected to access the start-up disk. Clicking the First Aid Tab, then the Repair to verify and repair the startup disk followed by try and start normally should fix the system folder location issue to enable the normal Mac boot process. Your Mac should now boot from its recovery partition. However, if the recovery process fails to work, restarting from the Recovery partition to conduct an OS X reinstallation is required to address the issue of system file location (LeVitus, 2016).

Figure 1: a flashing Icon

Handling Network Break Down

In the event of a network breakdown, the process action begins with assessing the magnitude of the magnitude of the outage, which is conducted by the network administrator. Assessment may involve conducting diagnostic activities to establish the specific cause of the breakdown (Han, Zhao & Li, 2018). The network administrator together with network operators should conduct a review of the outage assessments to establish the next cause of action. If the cause of outage is minor physical or logical issue, the network administrator should direct relevant internal repairs to recover full operation of the network. However, in case of a high magnitude event, the security department should conduct an evacuation to ensure the safety of employees. Moreover, a remedial network recovery action should be initiated by the administrator any designated persons. If the remedial action fails, the chief information officer should invoke the implementation of the disaster recovery plan, which should be supervised by the network administrators or designated employees to recover normal operations. In case the problem is not addressed through the disaster recovery plan, the network administrator or any designated employee should contact carriers and vendors to explore further possible solution to the breakdown. A Network administration should also be created to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the causes and solutions breakdown. At the end of its tenure, the team of administrators should document the findings of its analysis and recommendation in a report addressed to the senior IT management in the organization.

References

Gao, G. P., Yang, C., Hu, B., Zhang, R. F., & Wang, S. F. (2019). A Wide-Bandwidth Wearable All-Textile PIFA With Dual Resonance Modes for 5 GHz WLAN Applications. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation67(6), 4206-4211.

Han, Y., Zhao, X., & Li, J. (2018). Computer Network Failure and Solution. Journal of Computer Hardware Engineering (TRANSFERRED)1(1).

LeVitus, B. (2016). MacOS Sierra for Dummies. John Wiley & Sons.

Yamamoto, B., Wong, A., Agcanas, P. J., Jones, K., Gaspar, D., Andrade, R., & Trimble, A. Z. (2019). Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) of 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Wireless Local Area Network Systems Projected over Land and Sea for Near-Shore Maritime Robot Operations. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering7(9), 290.